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Internet Protocols

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries, organized in abstraction layers, traditionally called "Link," "Internet," "Transport" and "Application”. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet. IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information.

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Dear Team, we are suffering the slow problem of Email Exchange 2016: Send from Exchange server is OK, but receive is slow; which ever have or does not have attachments.

We have Avast installed in Exchange server, everything in default mode, not sure which Exchange part should be added to AV's exclusion.

Is there any other way for tuning or increasing the speed (except increase the bandwitdth, we are in Leased line link: 30 Mb/s International + 50 Mb/s Domestic)?

Many thanks as always!
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I want to be able to test how my web site looks from outside my firewall. And I'd like to be able to specify https:// and I'd like to be able to use IP address OR domain name. What's the best site for this? Is there one?
I have fortinet 600C with WAN interface connected to AT&T router (1 GigE). We are in process to upgrade AT&T MIS circuit from 1Gig to 10Gig. The speed is going to be throttled to 2Gig. What are my options with Fortinet 600C to get 2Gig link speed? Do we have to get two cables going from AT&T or we have to replace the fortinet? What is recommended or what should we do?
Say, No-IP is no longer allowing users to use the domain. Is there a way to get access to this domain? I have several modems created with this domain and have lost connectivity to their DDNSes.
I have a 2012 R2 IIS 8.5 Server that is running a web site for the application Kaseya.  I am trying to lock it down so depreciated ciphers are disabled and I would like to reorder them in a more secure fasion.  I have attempted to make the changes to the schannel key in the registry (didnt Work).  I have used Narcos IISCrypto and I have ran Powershell scripts to try and recreate all my keys.  I also used group policy to decide the cipher order.  Nothing has worked.  No matter if I have every cipher disabled or even protocol, they still show that they are in use.  I am scanning the server using Qulays ssl scan.  Has anyone ever ran in to this issue?  I have had no problem doing this on other application web servers in my organization, but this one seems as if the protocol and ciphers settings are hard coded somewhere other than the registry.  Any ideas would be greatly appreciated.  I'm wondering if the web application is forcing it somehow and my registry settings have no effect.  I just have never seen this happen, nor can I find any reference on the internet.    Just so everyone is aware, I have restarted after making the reg changes.  Unfortunately, the same protocols and ciphers are always enabled.
My computer is Windows 10 latest update, ASUS laptop using a USB to Ether adapter.
I plugged my computer into the router but I am not getting Internet. Can someone help me fix/diagnose this problem? I can get access using the wireless but that is very weak signal and not consistent, so I want to connect by wire.
How can I determine which domain registration company a particular domain is registered with?
Let's say I have I know who's hosting it but I don't remember who I registered that domain with.
Hello Experts - I am running an internal web based application called Deltek Vision on an instance of Server 2012 R2.  I would like to be able to make this available over the internet.  My firewall is a Fortigate 90D.  I took a peek at how the Exchange server was configured and tried to duplicate the logic for the Vision server since both are using http.  I created an Object for the Vision server using it's IP address, created two virtual IPs which is forwarding a spare public IP address on ports 80 (http) and 1433 (SQL), then duplicated the policy for Exchange to allow traffic to flow.  So far I'm getting no response which is where I'm stuck.  I'm not sure if I'm missing something on the routing side or if there is something else in IIS that needs to be done to allow access from the internet.

I'd appreciate any advice getting this working!
We have Verizon FIOS triple play.  They supplied an actiontech modem router.  

The contract is ending and we are moving to Comcast internet only service.  Verizon wants just the TV boxes back - says I can keep the actiontech.

can we just plug in the coax from comcast into the actiontech and it'll work?  or is it set up / proprietary for Verizon service only?  (right now the actiontech is fed from the Verizon optical box with a cat 5 on the WAN port, but it has a coax connector also.)

Again, we're looking to use this for just the internet only service

I got a requirement from my client that he wishes to encrypt/ password protect some of the documents, before sending over to another user in another regional office.

By not writing the password into the email body.

How can the user in another regional office knows the password to decrypt/ open the protected documents?

What approach should be adopted? Is there any standard/ algorithm I can refer to? But we prefer not to use any 3rd party software/ utility.

Thank you.
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Hello -

I’m trying to free up IPs in my 1st subnet (there’s 2) and I’m down to 1 free address, according to the statistics on the scope.  Weird thing is that when I successfully moved 4 static IP printer addresses over to the other subnet, and deleted their reservations, the statistics do not increase by 4 addresses – it still shows only 1 available address.  I double-checked the active leases and do not see my 4 printer addresses leased – statically nor dynamically.  I restarted the DHCP server service thinking maybe the server just hasn’t recognized the open addresses yet – didn’t help.  Wondering why it's not releasing the addresses back into the pool.

Thanks for your help
I am trying to block IE for a specific user on a computer.  I have tried simply removing the program and/or shortcuts but everytime there is a Windows Update it reinstalls the program/shortcut.  

I have tried using a proxy settings to disallow the access ( and locking down the Comm page) but this shuts off the internet connection to my PIN PAD (retail location) so this option will not work either.

I do need to leave internet access on the user accoutn for the credit card/gift card transactions and I need the administrator account to have access to IE for troubleshooting/maintenance actions.

I will need to repeat this process on about 20 non domain computers.  Any suggestions?
Hi Everyone,

I have a reconnection to do for a new TPG/AAPT EFM connection. I have previously configured the Ubiquiti edgerouter for the service however cannot find anywhere in the wondeful world of the web a configuration guide.

I previously was able to find this info online and configure using PPPOE for the edgerouter easily.

Can anyone confirm what needs to be done to set up the edgerouter again now that I have been given the IP address, range and the DNS values.

The NTU is by OneAccess.

I am using the GUI to configure rather than the console.

Any help on configuration would be greatly appreciated.
when I view a pc's arp table after I change the ip address in an ip camera's firmware, it shows up in "arp - a" as a dynamic instead of static. All the cameras show up as dynamic, even though I set them all manually to my scheme. I wonder why?
Which add-ins are ready for use?  Do I need to be concerned if I say "yes" or "no".
Is there a listing of which add-ins loading?
My laptop had a connection to the Internet. Lost it yesterday though. Have Windows 7. On the Taskbar it has the wifi icon with a yellow exclamation Mark. Just move my mouse to it a message pops up "unidentified network no Internet access." Click on it and it shows connected. At times it also shows limited access. I've tried to get wifi and wired to work but no luck. My router/gateway address is on my DSL. When checking ipconfig it shows ipv4《preferred》and is an autoconfiguration. And the default gateway is blank. What do I need to do?
We are currently staying in a hotel.

We have free wifi access that requires a password.

We have connected both 1 pc (windows 10) and one Iphone 7. internet is working really well.

But we are trying to connect an appletv to the wifi also.

We can select the wifi connection on the apple tv, it connects ok, but then hen we try to run an app like netflix,or youtube, it wont work.
Internet will not work on any app on the apple tv. Im assuming its because we have not added a password for the network on the apple tv.

So then I connected my pc to the hotel wifi network, shared the connection. The tried to connect via the appletv. no luck either.

So i connected the the hotel wifi via pc, and then created a personal hotspot. Chose the Hotspot network on the apple tv, and the ip appeared as

So at a a loss here.

I have read that I can go to hotel staff and get them to add the apple tv mac address to their system. But they didn't like that.

I have also disabled and anti virus and firewall on my pc.

Any ideas would be great.
Using URL without web site

My  URL is no longer associated with any web site i own.

I use this URL - - to send viewers to my SmugMug account.

Will [name] continue to function with no web site association as long as I own
I use Mac Safari but could switch to Chrome.

what is Incognito mode? What browsers support that?

Are there other search engines I can use?

Any downsides to browsing in the dark?

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after connecting mobile internet through sim (data interent sim) , how to share to computer .
without enabling hot spot , means through usb
Dear Colleagues,

I’ve used NAT for some time at Windows Server 2012, but now I want to migrate to ICS to share my modem connection. But unfortunately I’m not able to enable ICS because Windows shows some strange error: «(NAT) is currently installed as a routing protocol, and must be removed before enabling Internet Connection Sharing». But NAT is removed with RRAS console as well. I can’t understand where and what should I disable to become able to turn on ICS. The screenshots are attached.
I had this question after viewing Internet browsers not working but can ping and connect remotely.

A Windows Server 2012, not the domain controller, on the network has this problem. All the computers do not have it. This Windows Server can ping all sorts of websites but times out trying to load webpages. It can load, open the links on the Google homepage (About, Privacy, Terms...) not the Google search results pages.

After each of the attempted fixes, we get the message:
The connection has timed out.
The server at XXX is taking too long to respond.
... check your computer's network connection ...

Open in new window

Things we have tried:
  1. Tried with Microsoft Internet Explorer
  2. Tried with Firefox
  3. Reset Firefox settings
  4. Cleared the Firefox cache
  5. Tried with Windows Firewall disabled
  6. Scanned for viruses and found none with Webroot
  7. Uninstalled Webroot
  8. Checked for proxy settings and tried with and without
  9. netsh winsock reset all - then restarted the server
  10. netsh int ip reset all  - then restarted the server
  11. Reset the Comcast modem/router
  12. Tried different receptacles on the network switch

Any ideas? Thank you in advance!
Dear Colleagues,

I have a regular isolated network which consists of windows hosts connected to each other via switches. No router is present. One of these windows hosts is Windows Sever 2012 R2 with DC role and also DHCP role enabled. This Server has 4G Huawei modem connected to its USB interface.

Could you please help me to configure one windows workstation (Windows 7) to be able to use the internet from Windows Server?
Hello Experts

Can someone let me know if it's actually possible for a private individual to obtain a public IP address? And assign the public ip to my PC I would like to be able to connect to my home PC remotely over a public IP address. I'm certain it's not possible, but I thought I would ask anyway

I look forward to your answers.


I managed the IT department at our National Auditorium and i am doing a little bit of research regarding setting up our Auditorium to live-streaming our events in throughout the world via "internet".

At the moment whenever we have big national shows - we have a National Television company which comes and live stream and broadcast the event LIVE throughout the country on Television only.

Just recently, my committee met and propose to me to work on setting up a way where we can live stream our events through online via our website where a visitor will pay at least $2.00 or less before watching the show. I know this will involve setting up a merchant account where by the PGateways will process credit card and deposit fund into our merchant account before a visitor could watch a live event.

We have high end equipment in our auditorium (eg: audio and visual).

I have also developed the site and it is online now.

Anyway's i am just doing a little bit of research and even if we have to buy some hardware or any suggestions i would very much appreciate. Please let me know your thoughts and input.

Much appreciated.


Internet Protocols

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries, organized in abstraction layers, traditionally called "Link," "Internet," "Transport" and "Application”. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet. IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information.

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Internet Protocols