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A laptop or notebook is a portable personal computer with a clamshell form factor, suitable for mobile use. Although originally there was a distinction between laptops and notebooks, the former being bigger and heavier than the latter, there is often no longer any difference. Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in education, and for personal multimedia. A laptop combines the components, inputs, outputs and capabilities of a desktop computer, including the display screen, speakers, a keyboard, and pointing devices (such as a touchpad or trackpad) into a single unit. The device can be powered either from a rechargeable battery or by mains electricity from an AC adapter.

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Lithium Evaporation Pools, Attacama Desert, Chile. 2015
Lithium-ion batteries area cornerstone of today's portable electronic devices, and even though they are relied upon heavily, their chemistry and origin are not of common knowledge. This article is about a device on which every smartphone, laptop, and tablet depends.
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by:Member_2_7969012
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Very well written Article! Hope to see more of the same!
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by:Member_2_7970043
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Great article--accessible to the public but appropriately technical!
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I'm a big fan of Windows' offline folder caching and have used it on my laptops for over a decade.  One thing I don't like about it, however, is how difficult Microsoft has made it for the cache to be moved out of the Windows folder.  Here's how to do it.
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by:Jim Horn
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Very well written, for the complexity of the subject matter it was pretty easy to follow along.  Voting Yes.
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In this article you will get to know about pros and cons of storage drives HDD, SSD and SSHD.
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by:jorge diaz
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Good Article Yashwant, simple and to the point. Luckily we're seeing ssd prices dropping as they take more market share.
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by:Yashwant Vishwakarma
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Thank You Jorge :) for upvoting my article.
Yes very true, now these days SSD are becoming popular and prices are also dropping.
Now we can hope for more SSD availability in market at low prices.

Have a gorgeous day ahead.. :)
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Sometimes a user will call me frantically, explaining that something has gone wrong and they have tried everything (read - they have messed it up more and now need someone to clean up) and it still does no good, can I help them?!  Usually the standard restart will fix most ills.  In this case a restart was unproductive.  It took me a moment to figure out this was probably something fairly simple and, most likely had happened to someone else already (which meant there was likely to be a solution online).
 

The problem:


You are working on a Windows 8.x laptop and you have an experience where your screen is suddenly all sideways,

(I  will confess, up front, that the solution to this dilemma did not come to me unbidden, or even with great effort.  I googled it and found something that looked like my problem and found a way to fix it. )

001-flipped.PNGYes sideways.  Or if you have a web browser open it may look like this one:
002-flipped.PNG

Note that if your machine is anything like my laptop or the one I fixed, it has a touchpad to control the mouse.  Everything is flipped.  So right is down and left is up, while up goes to the right and down goes to the left.  
 

The Solution:


There is an easy fix (which I found here and another Microsoft link here).  The basics in this article were good enough to get me started.  My desktop did not have the checkbox (allow the screen to auto-rotate) like the one pictured here.  This seems to only exist if you have a screen that flips as in a 2-in-1.
004-screen-res-cp.PNG
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by:Predrag Jovic
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What was not in the article is why this is happening, this functionality is not part of Windows 7, 8, 10 etc by default.
Those hot keys are part of Intel Graphic and Media Control Panel and can be disabled (it is enabled by default), or if you want you can change key sequence (not recommended).
:)Intel Hot key
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by:Thomas Zucker-Scharff
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Didn't know that.  I will investors and amend article of necessary.
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Computer running slow? Taking forever to open a folder, documents, or any programs that you didn't have an issue with before? Here are a few steps to help speed it up.

The programs mentioned below ALL have free versions, you can buy them if you want, but I suggest using the free version in this case.
 
Antivirus

First step is to check, and clean up, any viruses / malware you might have installed on your computer. Any good antivirus will help with this. There are many out there, if you don’t have any currently installed, you should do this right away. Many of the big names have free 30 day trials to find one you like. There are also many free ones, but they may only give you a quarter of the feature or not have real-time scanning as an option. The only downside is this could slightly slow your computer as it will be running in the background at all times. However, it is very important you have an antivirus program installed to help prevent you from becoming infecting and losing personal information.

Once installed run a full system scan and clean up any viruses it may find.

One suggested antivirus program to run is MalwareBytes found at (www.malwarebytes.org). Use the free version (this does not do real time scans unless you buy it. However it is free to do on demand scans for this case. However, I highly recommend buying a antivirus program from your favorite antivirus vendor (or do some research and pick which one is best for you).

 
AntiSpyware
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by:Rochelle Adsitt
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Also - ninite.com is a fabulous resource for installing the latest version of utilities and other software we've come to depend on (Adobe Reader, Flash, Java, Malwarebytes, etc.) cleanly and quickly. It installs the software for me and doesn't allow any of the extra junk (like toolbars) to get installed or enabled.
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by:gudii9
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CCleaner I mentioned above can be found at (https://www.piriform.com/ccleaner) use the free version

i installed and analyzed saw 9243 mb worth of files. now cleaning them.

when i open the windows explorer (windows key+E)it is closing by itself in few seconds saying 'windows enountered a problem..windows trying to find solution etc) not sure why
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The Samsung SSD 840 EVO and 840 EVO mSATA have a well-known problem with a drop in read performance. I first learned about this in an interesting thread here at Experts Exchange:


http://www.experts-exchange.com/Hardware/Storage/Hard_Drives/Q_28528522.html


Samsung recently released a fix for this problem in the form of "a new firmware and performance restoration software package for the 840 EVO and 840 EVO mSATA."


Article Update: Thanks to the heads-up from ScottCha in his comment on 15-Jul-2016, I have concluded that the "Performance Restoration Software" is no longer available at the Samsung website. While the first link below is still valid and takes you to the Tools download page, the "Performance Restoration Software" is not there. The Samsung Magician Software and the firmware updates are there, so I'm guessing that Samsung views those as the solution to the problem. If anyone reading this article has more information to offer, please post a comment.


The download for it may be found in the "Samsung SSD 840 EVO Performance Restoration Software" section at this link:


http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/minisite/SSD/global/html/support/downloads.html


I was experiencing performance problems on a laptop with a 250 GB Samsung SSD 840 EVO running W7 Pro 64-bit. I downloaded the Samsung software from here (it's in a ZIP file):


Article Update: The two links below no longer work and I cannot find the "Performance Restoration Software" anywhere at the Samsung website. My suggestions at this point are to update your SSD's firmware and use the Samsung Magician Software, both of which are available at the link above.


http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/minisite/SSD/downloads/software/Samsung_Performance_Restoration_V11.zip


I installed it a few days ago following the instructions in the Samsung Performance Restoration v.1.1 Introduction and Installation Guide:


http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/minisite/SSD/downloads/software/Samsung_Performance_Restoration_v11.pdf


I encourage you to read that manual thoroughly before installation, as there are many caveats in it — see the "Precautions" and "General Limitations" sections.


A caveat of my own: When the firmware update reached the 80% completion point, I received a Windows message saying that new hardware was detected and that I should reboot. I suspect this occurred because the firmware update reached a point where Windows Plug and Play kicked in and detected the "new" drive. Unfortunately, this is not documented in the Samsung manual. I did not know if I should do the reboot at that time or wait until the firmware update completed at 100%. I opted for the latter, as I was quite sure that stopping the firmware update at 80% wasn't a good idea — and it worked out well.


I also felt protected on the decision, as I had done a clone of the SSD to an external (USB) HDD using Casper. So even if I bricked the SSD, I could get a new one and clone to it from the HDD. And that's another caveat — I strongly recommend doing a clone before undertaking any firmware update of your primary drive.


The installation on the W7 Pro 64-bit laptop with the 250 GB SSD 840 EVO worked perfectly. After a few days of use, I can say that performance is significantly improved — back to where it was when I first installed the SSD around 2.5 months ago. However, I can't be certain about cause and effect. This experience is anecdotal, not statistical. I pass it along for other EE members to consider if you are having performance problems with your Samsung SSD 840 EVO or 840 EVO mSATA.


Article Update on 17-December-2014: I ran the software again last night on a Windows 8 system, this time capturing the screens along the way for this article.


After unzipping and running the program, User Account Control (UAC) prompts for elevation:


UAC-elevation.jpg

Make sure it shows Samsung as the verified publisher. It then takes you through the setup wizard with an option to launch when completed:


Setup-welcome.jpg


EULA.jpg


Destination.jpg

Desktop-icon.jpg

Ready-to-install.jpg


Completed-and-launch.jpg

After launching, the program goes through four steps, the first being the firmware update:



Opening-screen.jpg


It provides a warning about the risk of firmware updates:



Warning.jpg

As I already mentioned earlier in the article, I recommend heeding this warning and creating a clone (or image) of the drive before running the program.


After the first step (Firmware Update), it does a timer-based automatic shutdown:


Shutdown.jpg

After the reboot, it performs Step 1:



Step1.jpg

Then Step 2:


Step2.jpg


Then Step 3:



Step3.jpg

It will say "Performance Restoration is complete." when it reaches the 100% mark:


Complete.jpg


The last dialog box simply asks if you want to close the program, which I did:


Close.jpg

One difference between this run and the previous one is that this one did not prompt for a reboot at the 80 per cent completion mark. I can't explain that. It is possibly due to a difference between W7 and W8, but I don't know.


The installation on the W8 Pro 64-bit laptop with the 250 GB SSD 840 EVO worked perfectly. After some use last night and this morning, I can say that performance has improved. However, as I stated with respect to the W7 system, I can't be certain about cause and effect. Like the previous one, this experience is anecdotal, not statistical.


If you find this article to be helpful, please click the thumbs-up icon below. This lets me know what is valuable for EE members and provides direction for future articles. Thanks very much! Regards, Joe

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by:Scott C
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Getting ready to do this on my SSD this weekend and noticed that the last 2 links are no longer valid. You might want to look into them.

Great article.  Hopefully I'll get my speed back.

Thanks.
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by:Joe Winograd, EE MVE 2015&2016
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Hi Scott,
Thanks for the alert — I didn't know that the links went bad. It's just about impossible to keep links up-to-date in a large number of published articles and videos, so I really appreciate your heads-up on this one. I'll do some research and update the article accordingly. And thanks for the compliment and the upvote — both very much appreciated! Regards, Joe

Update: After researching the Samsung website, I've come to the conclusion that Samsung no longer offers the "Performance Restoration" software. My guess is that the latest firmware update and the Samsung Magician Software are now the solution, as those links still exist. I will update the article accordingly.
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For some time some of our users experienced package loss on a couple of our Lenovo Thinkpad S531 machines running Windows 8 or Windows 8.1 64-bit OS. I was not able to find many answers online, but did after some investigation I began to suspect Bluetooth as being part of the problem.

I found a number of articles describing different performance issues related to Broadcom and this particular Lenovo series laptop, but sadly no article was directly related to this incident.

What happens?
When you browse the web, for example news sites or Facebook you might not experience anything, other than it might be a little slow. If you were to use some online tools, like synching emails then you would feel the pain in a way that the Internet is not working.

What i tried
I did updates to the computers' BIOS, followed by Windows updates and Lenovo driver updates. I also tried disabling some interfering services while trying to reset all of the network settings in Windows as well. I first suspected Bluetooth as having a part in this when I could see a slight increase of performance with less package loss when I disabled all Bluetooth services. It wasn't perfect, but about 30 per cent better.

The solution= Disable Bluetooth Collaboration
Keep in mind my setup:
Lenovo Thinkpad S531
Windows 8 & 8.1 64-bit OS
Broadcom WiFi BCM43XX
  1. Start by opening up Device Manager
    1.png
  2. Right click the wifi network adapter and then choose "Properties".
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by:sultanit
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thank you
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Dell XPS 12 CoonvertibleI am not new to IT, I have been working in the field since 1985.  But recently I came up against something that stumped even me (it doesn't happen as often as I would like).  I was running a screencasting session from the laptop to my TV via ChromeCast (I love it).  About half way through the movie that my wife and I were watching, the screen on the laptop went black.  I figured it was because I didn't have it plugged in and it was conserving power.

When we finished I tried to wake up the computer in all the normal ways.  The keyboard lit up but the screen stayed black.  

I tried rebooting, but holding the power key for the 10 seconds I usually do for my desktops, if they have a similar problem, did absolutely nothing.  I decided to wait until the next day.  In the meantime I charged it up, it was down to 20% according to the lights on the side.

The next morning I woke up and when I had gotten dressed I tried waking it again - no luck.  No luck trying to reboot either (this time I held the power toggle for a count of 20).  On the bus on my way to work I asked the one person I thought might know the answer, my son Aram.  He is a wiz with computers, has one of these very laptops, and has a degree in Computer Science/security (check him out at aramzs.me).  I texted him and after a couple of back and forth questions he suggested trying the reboot again, by holding the power toggle longer (these machines apparently need that) - his words were "a long …
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by:bill slevin
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Having the same problem but it will not come back on, I held it for 60 and nothing.. the screen will not come on at all and the laptop is 3 days old. the system starts up because you can see the lights on the keyboard.
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by:lherrou
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I had the same problem recently with a Toshiba laptop. After going through all this with their tech support, it turned out to be a bad motherboard and had to go back for replacement.
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As hardware bugs go, this is a strange one! I upgraded a laptop in December 2011 with a 512GB Crucial m4 2.5-inch/9.5mm SATA Solid State Drive (SSD), Crucial part number CT512M4SSD2:
http://www.crucial.com/store/partspecs.aspx?IMODULE=CT512M4SSD2

The SSD installed perfectly in a Core i7, W7/64-bit laptop – no problems whatsoever. The laptop had awesome performance, thanks to both the upgrade to the SSD and an upgrade to 16GB of DDR3 memory.

Fast forward to the end of last month and all of a sudden the machine starts freezing/hanging. The first time it happened, I figured it was the odd glitch and simply rebooted, which seemed to fix the problem. But about an hour later, same thing! Another reboot, another seeming fix, but an hour or so later...you guessed it!

So I started looking for the problem. First thought was the 16GB RAM upgrade – could the memory be bad? So I ran Memtest86 overnight, completing almost three full passes. No errors!

Second thought was Classic Shell, which I installed because I don't like the W7 Start Menu. The problem seemed to occur when I hit the Start button, but this proved to be happenstance, as the problem did not go away after uninstalling Classic Shell.

Third thought was that I noticed a large number of Windows Updates that occurred late in the evening on the day before the problem first hit. I was just about to blame Microsoft, go back to a restore …
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by:Alan Hardisty
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Perfect timing!  I just installed one to my laptop yesterday and wouldn't want to have to wait 8 months for the laptop to start freezing up on me (and I am sure the last thing I would suspect is a drive that had been working properly for 8 months).

Updated the firware from 000F to 010G and look forward to a fully responsive laptop for years to come.

Thanks for writing up your experience / findings.  I'm just glad I saw this tweeted today (I don't always check Twitter).

Yes vote from me.

Alan
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by:Joe Winograd, EE MVE 2015&2016
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Alan,
Thanks for the Yes vote – much appreciated! And thanks for the heads-up on the tweet. I do have a Twitter account, but don't use it, so I would not have known about it. Regards, Joe
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I originally posted this Article Here and thought I would now share with the Experts Exchange community.

Driver Problems
Often when you format your windows pc or laptop you will boot up to a desktop and find you have no sound or the video is not working at the correct resolution, etc.
 
The reason is most likely there was not a driver installed when you did the format. Without a driver installed for the device then the operating system cannot communicate with the hardware and it will not work. I will keep the scope of this article limited to fining a driver for a device that does not have a driver installed.

First step

CHECK IF THE INTERNET DRIVER HAS BEEN INSTALLED (lan, wLan)
If you are lucky, then your lan or Wlan driver was put on.
With this, you can access the internet and get the latest and most stable drivers.
If not, then find the driver cd that would have come with your computer when it was       purchased.

 On most driver cd’s, you can manually choose which driver you want to install.  The only one you want on cd is the internet driver.
Should you not have the internet driver already installed, or cannot obtain a driver cd, then it is always good to have a spare computer working and on the internet so you can download drivers.

If you have to obtain the internet driver from a spare computer, you can …
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The Ultimate Checklist to Optimize Your Website
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The Ultimate Checklist to Optimize Your Website

Websites are getting bigger and complicated by the day. Video, images, custom fonts are all great for showcasing your product/service. But the price to pay in terms of reduced page load times and ultimately, decreased sales, can lead to some difficult decisions about what to cut.

I recently purchased an HP EliteBook 2540p notebook/laptop. It has two video ports on it – VGA and DisplayPort. HP offers an optional docking station for the 2540p that also has both a VGA port and a DisplayPort. There are numerous online reports documenting that the docking station can drive two monitors simultaneously (obviously, one via the VGA port and the other via the DisplayPort), but I could not find anyone reporting that the notebook itself (without the docking station) can drive both. So I decided to give it a try. Here are the results.

The one word answer is – YES! Running 64-bit Windows 7 Professional (this is the standard, bundled OS for the 2540p), I tested it in two different setups. The first consisted of a Dell 2707WFP 27" flat panel LCD monitor (connected via VGA) and a Dell 2709W 27" flat panel LCD monitor (connected via DisplayPort). The 2540p drove both at 1920x1200 resolution and 32-bit color (in an extended desktop configuration) with excellent performance. The only downside is that the notebook cannot drive the built-in LCD at the same time. I experimented with it for a while and found that it can handle just two displays at a time, not three. So it can drive either both of the external monitors or one of the external monitors and the notebook LCD. I happily gave up the 12.1", 1280x800 notebook display for the 27", 1920x1200 monitor.

Neither of the Dell monitors has built-in speakers, so I was unable to test whether …
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by:Joe Winograd, EE MVE 2015&2016
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Two updates to this article: (1) I tested a DisplayPort-to-DVI-D adapter and it does, indeed, work, as discussed towards the end of the article. (2) One of the articles on my to-do list is about a video adapter/converter (known as as "active" adapter) that allows three monitors (or two monitors and the built-in display) to work on some laptops in some configurations. However, I tried it on the HP EliteBook 2540p, both on the laptop itself and on the VU895UT Docking Station, and with a DisplayPort-to-HDMI active adapter in one test and a DisplayPort-to-DVI-D active adapter in another test – none of the four tests was able to get the built-in display working at the same time as the two external monitors. Regards, Joe
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Two to three times a week, some version of the question below is posted:

"I have a laptop that (was given to me / I bought on ebay / I forgot the password for).  I can't (start it / upgrade the BIOS / change BIOS settings) because it's asking for a BIOS password.  I don't know what the password is.  What can I do to override the BIOS password?"

Here's a summary of what has been learned and reported here on EE over the past few years.

This question occurs very frequently.  If you have information to add to or update this article, please contact me so that the information can be kept up to date.
 

1 Removing the Battery


    Removing the BIOS backup battery seldom works on a modern laptop.  Several years ago, manufacturers realized security that can be defeated this easily is no security at all.  In addition, most governments will not buy laptops where the security can be defeated.  Therefore manufacturers build all systems to an undefeatable standard.
   BIOS passwords are now stored on mini-flash chips, separate from the BIOS chips.  There are some individual exceptions, but they are few and getting fewer.
 

2 Contacting the Manufacturer


    If you can prove to the manufacturer that you are the registered owner of the laptop, they can sometimes issue an override password.  This is true only for (a) older systems (b) without the TPM (see below.)
 
Acer:
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by:Brad Sims, CCNA
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Thank you for this. There are some shops on eBay that will perform password removal cheaper than the manufacturer if you can prove ownership as well. I have used one of the services and it was very professional.
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by:Patrick Matthews
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From the bio:

Dr. Klahn is building a PC of extraordinary magnitude!

You have our gratitude.

Patrick
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SCOPE
I WILL CONCENTRATE ON LCD SCREEN INVERTOR , CCFL BULB PROBLEMS.
 

The old question "My laptop screen is black what can it be ?".

POSSIBLE PROBLEMS ARE.
 1. INVERTER BOARD IS BAD.
 2. CCFL BULB IN LCD SCREEN IS BAD.
 3. NO VIDEO TO THE LCD SCREEN.

 TOOLS YOU WILL NEED FOR THIS PROJECT.
  TOOLS  1. 9V BATTERY
  2. 9V BATTERY POWER CORD.
  3. KNOWN GOOD INVERTER FROM ANY LCD LAPTOP SCREEN



ONCE YOU HAVE ACQUIRED THE TOOLS YOU WILL NEED YOU CAN PROCEED.


VIDEO

IF YOUR LAPTOP IS EQUIPPED WITH AN VGA EXTERNAL MONITOR CONNECTOR YOU CAN DO A QUICK CHECK FOR VIDEO.
 EXTERNALSIMPLY PLUG A EXTERNAL MONITOR IN TO YOUR VGA PORT AND CHECK IF YOU GET VIDEO ON YOUR MONITOR.

SOME LAPTOP REQUIRE YOU TO PRESS A FN KEY PLUS A KEY WITH A PICTURE OF A MONITOR TO SWITCH BETWEEN YOUR LCD LAPTOP SCREEN AND YOUR EXTERNAL MONITOR.

IF YOU GET VIDEO ON YOUR EXTERNAL MONITOR THEN YOU KNOW THERE IS A LCD SCREEN , INVERTER BOARD, CCFL BULB PROBLEM. IF NO VIDEO ON AN EXTERNAL MONITOR IS PRESENT THEN YOU SHOULD SUSPECT A VIDEO OR VIDEO CABLE PROBLEM

CCFL BULB
NOW WE CAN USE OUR KNOWN GOOD INVERTER AND 9V BATTERY TO DO A QUICK CHECK TO SEE IF OUR  COLD CATHODE FLUORESCENT BULB IS WORKING.
UNPLUG THE LAPTOPS INVERTER AND PLUG IN OUR KNOWN GOOD INVERTER.
KNOWN GOOD INVERTER
NOW CONNECT THE BLACK PROBE TO THE GROUND SCREW HOLE ON THE INVERTER BOARD ,
AND THE RED PROBE TO THE YELLOW WIRE PIN ON THE INVERTER.

 PROBES
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by:nobus
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Nice article , Grant!
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by:asidu
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Good idea using a 9V battery to test the CCFL.
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When you hit the power button on your laptop and it does nothing there are a couple of things that you need to check. You will need to check your Ac Power Adapter and your DC Power Jack.

 Tip: If you have checked your Ac power adapter and know it is good and
 If you plug your AC power adapter in your DC power jack and press the power button and move the AC power adapter plug up and down and from side to side ,
 and you see your lights trying to come on you have a bad DC power jack and can use the this article to learn how to repair the DC power jack.

 Tools You will need.
     1. Digital Multi Meter
     2. Soldering Iron
     3. Small Wire
     4. Solder
     5. Phillips screw driver to disassemble you laptop.
     6. Solder paste flux.




  Things you can learn from this article.
     1. How to diagnose your DC power jack to see if it is bad.
     2. How to repair your DC power jack.
 
 If you can not solder you can practice on old motherboards until you are confident enough in your soldering ability's to try this.

 You can at least learn how to use a digital multi meter to test your DC power jack and see if it is bad.

 First thing is check the AC power adapter click the link below.
http://www.experts-exchange.com/Hardware/Laptops_Notebooks/A_3413-Check-Laptop-Power-Adapter-Voltage.html

Next Check your DC power jack .

 The first thing you will need to do is disassemble your laptop down to the …
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by:aleghart
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Step 1 should be to reset the switch logic.  I can't tell you how many times I've "fixed" a notebook or desktop by telling the user to unplug from the wall (remove laptop battery) and hold the power button for 5-10 seconds.  Drains all the caps, defaults the power status, then when you reconnect AC power, the motherboard can complete the logic problem:  I'm "off" > somebody pressed "on"

I haven't gone through the rest, as I've only done this a couple of times to obvious broken solder points or cracked jacks.  Didn't need to do much but solder the replacement on then plug it in.
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by:Coralie Crumrine
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Very nice article. Thank you for the details and step by step. This is going into my knowledge base toolbox!
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Introduction

For the past 15 years, mobility has been a top priority for employers, employees, students and all kind of people. Having more and more in your portable phone or "smartphone" is a priority and being able to work while on a plane, bus or taxi is a must.

Is not uncommon to see people in all kind of clothes open a portable computer on an airplane and start writing numbers and making graphics on a spreadsheet or fine-tunning a slide presentation. This article is meant to serve as a guide for people to make the right decision when purchasing a new portable computer. It is aimed to both the consumer market (students, wifes, husbands, kids and even grandparents) and the corporate/IT sector, wherever desktop computers and workstations are being replaced by these smaller screens with a keyboard.

Note: In the following, I will present a mix of opinions and hard-earned knowledge.  Not everyone will agree with all of my suggestions, but I do hope that at least some of the following will be useful to you!
This article will focus on three main aspects: Need, Budget  & Useful Life. Each of these aspects will be discussed in every category: Home Use, Students, Office Work & Power Users.

For all Windows-based systems (or PCs) the OS of choice is Windows 7. Period.

I will assume you are familiar with some of the terms I've used in this article like RAM memory or CPU. If you don't, it's OK!  Don't worry …
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When you press your power button on your laptop and the LCD screen just stays black.  What is the problem?

Possible problem can be the on-board video chip or Video Card.
Possible problem can be the power inverter.
Possible problem can be the back light of the LCD screen.
Memory
Bad LCD Cable Connections

On-board VIDEO CHIP or Video Card BAD

First let's look at the possibility that your video chip on your motherboard is bad.  You can also have a separate video card instead of on-board video chip.

If you press the power button on your laptop and you just get a blank screen, then you need to do a couple of checks to see just what the problem might be.

1) If the LED lights are on and you hear the fan in the laptop running and hard drive working but there is no video, that usually means the video chip on the motherboard has gone bad.  This can be repaired by re-flowing the video chip. You will have to find a good repair tech that knows what he is doing for this repair.  It might cost in the neighborhood of $150.00 for this repair.

2) Plug a external monitor to the laptop and see if you have any video. If you see video on your external monitor then your video is OK.
NOTE:
When your power inverter is bad or the back light is bad, you can usually see a faint image on the LCD screen.

Power Inverter / Backlight BAD

1)
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Before accusing the battery of being bad be sure to test if the Power Adaptor is working properly.
Click Here(http://www.experts-exchange.com/Hardware/Laptops_Notebooks/A_3413-Check-Laptop-Power-Adapter-Voltage.html) .

From the first time you charge your battery, they start to decrease their life span, so be sure to take notice of the symptoms of a dying (or dead) battery.

Some symptoms of a bad battery include:
 1.Short time of running the laptop (1hour).
 2.When on battery power alone, the laptop just shuts off for no apparent reason.

If you do not have an operating system installed, one of the best places to start is in your BIOS.
The BIOS contains valuable information about your battery. It will let you know if your battery's life is already exceeded its life or if it is ok at the moment.

If you have windows installed, then go to your Control Panel then click on Power Options.   From there, you can see if your battery is charging or not. Also, while you are in Power Options Properties window,  there is a basic test you can do to see if your battery needs to be replaced.


1. Charge the battery to 100% .
2. Pull up the computers clock by double clicking on the time in the system tray.
3. Mark your time for 10 minutes and unplug the power adapter from the laptop.
4. If you are losing more than 1% per minute, or if you lose more than 10% in 10 minutes then your battery needs to be replaced.

AC Adapters


If…
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Author Comment

by:Grant1842
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Hey thanks DrDamnit . I am not the best at grammar and writing but I do want to help people on this site.
Looks good to me go ahead and publish.
 
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Sometimes you have a CD / DVD drive that will not show up in Windows Explorer under My Computer.  There could be a number of reasons for this, which this article will discuss.   I will cover a few basic ways you can try to find the problem yourself.

Some of the symptoms of a bad CD / DVD drive are

1. It is loud

This can happen if there is a disk in the drive tray or not.

2. Computer will not read the disk.

When you put a disk in, it may not show up in Windows.
Tip: Download a LINUX LIVE CD and boot it up.  See if you can put a CD in and it works properly. I use one that you can download from here: http://software.opensuse.org/113/en If you can boot from this live CD then the drive is working properly to boot into Linux at this point.

This can help greatly in figuring out if it is a Windows Problem or a Hardware Problem.

3. The system will not recognize the drive at all.

It will not show up in the BIOS, Device Manager, or it may have a splat next to it in the device manager.

4. Software conflict

I have seen a conflict with other software that cause a problem in the registry and the drive will not show up in the Device Manager.  You can check it out buy going into RegEdit.
 
If you have never been in your registry before I would recommend you not to try this check as you may delete the wrong key and cause yourself more problems. If you would like to try this, then here we go.

1. Click Start RUN and in the Run box type regedit
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When I work on a laptop, the first thing I always check is for proper voltage output.

Many times I have had customers bring only their laptop in and think their battery is bad - then  I plug in my universal adapter and the battery charges fine.

The customer takes the laptop home and then brings it back, still thinking their battery is bad.

I always try to get them to bring the power adapter with the laptop so I can test the whole system.

Voltage will vary so always check for your model's correct voltage.

Most laptop's power adapters put out around 19.50 volts.

Let's get started.

1. Get out your multimeter.

2. Attach red lead to the center of the jack.

3. Hold black lead to the outside of the jack.

4. Read the voltage on the multimeter
.

TIP: While reading the voltage move the cord around the power jack and watch the reading on the multimeter. If the voltage remains the same then the power adapter has passed the basic test.

If the numbers on the meter go up and down then there is a break in the cord somewhere. You can get a new one or you can repair the area.

Check.jpg
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Introduction:

I have always been fascinated by wireless technology ranging from Infrared to Wimax. Bluetooth comes next to Infrared (in terms of distance of operation) and is commonly used in gadgets like Cellphones, PDAs and Computers for the exchange of Data. Since you are reading this, I assume you to be fairly acquainted with computers and such stuff. The basic advantage behind Bluetooth is that it always works. And when it doesn’t, well that’s why I am writing this Article.

Connecting via Bluetooth:

The primary way of connecting to any Bluetooth device always remains the same. Both the devices turn on Bluetooth Radio & set themselves to be Discoverable. Suppose we want to pair 2 Devices. Then, following will be the process to pair and share services on them.

Device A initiates a scan for new devices.
When Device B is listed (there can be more than one device listed if there are other Bluetooth devices in proximity of the scanning device), Device A sends out a “Request to Pair” message to Device B.
Device B responds to Device A to enter a Passcode.
User on Device A receives a Dialog box prompting to enter a Passcode where it is entered and sent back to Device B. The Passcode is mutually agreed between the two users. It can be a 4 digit number or any alphanumeric code too. I generally use 1234.
User on Device B also receives a Dialog box prompting to enter a Passcode where it is entered. It should be the same which was entered in Device A, else pairing will fail.
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A laptop or notebook is a portable personal computer with a clamshell form factor, suitable for mobile use. Although originally there was a distinction between laptops and notebooks, the former being bigger and heavier than the latter, there is often no longer any difference. Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in education, and for personal multimedia. A laptop combines the components, inputs, outputs and capabilities of a desktop computer, including the display screen, speakers, a keyboard, and pointing devices (such as a touchpad or trackpad) into a single unit. The device can be powered either from a rechargeable battery or by mains electricity from an AC adapter.