Laptops Notebooks





A laptop or notebook is a portable personal computer with a clamshell form factor, suitable for mobile use. Although originally there was a distinction between laptops and notebooks, the former being bigger and heavier than the latter, there is often no longer any difference. Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in education, and for personal multimedia. A laptop combines the components, inputs, outputs and capabilities of a desktop computer, including the display screen, speakers, a keyboard, and pointing devices (such as a touchpad or trackpad) into a single unit. The device can be powered either from a rechargeable battery or by mains electricity from an AC adapter.

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How to fix a common PXE boot error caused by disruptions in the SCCM imaging process.
Found that the older Dell e7470 laptops with this Intel m.2 drive had frequent lockups, never knew why until we saw this defective chip on these Intel drives.
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Author Comment

by:Rob Hutchinson
Just an update on the number of defective drives...
28 total defective drives this year, 8 replaced under warranty, 20 out of warranty...all had this same melted chip defect.

=) Now, I just need a good mobile frame to create a very unique mobile with 20 hanging m.2 Intel drives, lol
( the pic only has 19 drives pictured cause one drive is from today, and is in quarantine still)

Updated this comment on 12-26-19, Merry Xmas, here's the Intel Defective Hard drive Mobile =)
In the modern world, the laptop became the go-to device for work, especially for those working on the move. But among the endless variety of manufacturers, price levels and features on how to choose the best one? Find out in this article.

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by:Roland Harris
HI Andrew,

MacBook Air is really great if you have to use it on the go a lot as it weights basically nothing and having your system running of an SSD became a required feature in my opinion - I mean MacBook Pro still works pretty fast of an HDD, but Air is even better than that. I find that MacBook keyboards feel weird at first, but you really get used to them after a time.

Honestly, this is a very nice laptop. The only thing it could fall behind on is graphically intense tasks, even though Apple tries to play up the capabilities of the integrated GPUs, Intel HD Graphics were never really all that great. But then again things like rendering video is not the main purpose of this machine and it should be more than enough for other tasks.

I hope your purchase serves you well. One thing Apple always had is making their computers really pleasant to use.
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by:Ryan Chong
Need some guidance here as I'm looking to buy a new laptop soon for programming stuffs:

1. Will Dell XPS 13 (2018) outperform Dell XPS 15?

2. Is HP Probook 450 g5 a worth to buy?

General rules for the care of MAC

It's a shame if the failure occurred due to ignoring simple rules for care or because of improper use of the device. For the MacBook, there are hygiene rules, as well as for users - if you do not follow these simple rules, neglect, or do not know them, then the device does not last long. You will definitely need to seek the assistance of a professional master or give the device for a number of works to clean the device in the service center.

Unlike the laptops of many companies, Apple's laptops are cleaned a bit harder, and the user without special skills is better not to take it for themselves. Just wipe the dust you will get without a doubt, but at the same time make a replacement for the dried thermal paste will not work. Such complications are due to the location of the radiator under the motherboard, and in order to make a replacement for thermal grease, a fee should be charged. The good news is that if you have MacBook Air and MacBook previous releases, where access to the MacBook is under the cover, and in the MacBook under the keyboard, then you can do the work yourself.

So, what is required of us as responsible for the device? Just a couple of minutes a week and only!

1. Turn off the device, turn it off from power.
2. We take out the battery (in case it is removable).
3. Clean with a soft cloth (microfiber for office equipment) ports and air vents to remove dust.
4. We eliminate vacuum from the hard-to-reach areas, for example, slots.

But, it is not advisable to use a vacuum cleaner to clean the internal parts of the MacBook, as it has not yet brought any positive results to anyone. If there are pieces of dirt and dust left in the holes, you can use a toothbrush to moisten it with alcohol or an alcohol-based agent. The device is ready to work in half an hour, everything is simple and easy!

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Сare of MacBook battery

The check of the condition in which the battery is located should be made in a month 2 or more times, if this is not done, do not hesitate to apply for a repair of the MacBook. For verification, it is necessary to take the following actions:

1. Charge battery fully.

2. Enter the pmset -g rawlog command in the Terminal to check the current status of the battery.

The input of this command for its correct and correct execution should be done from the keyboard, and not through copying, after which the launch is performed by pressing the "Enter" key. The utility will display an image showing the current status of the battery. The codes and commands for the battery will have the following meanings:

  • The presence of a connected power adapter - yes for external connected;
  • Battery charge status is activated - yes for battery present;
  • No battery charging at the moment - no for battery charging;
  • Display of the factory or current capacity of the battery - cap = 5435/5380;
  • The permissible quantity and at this time for the charge-discharge cycles, as well as at the present time - cycle count = 1000/72.

3. Special attention should be paid to the cap 5435/5380 indicator. If the value of the second number is greater than the first when the battery is fully charged, it is worthwhile to subject the battery to recalibration. To this end, the laptop itself is connected to the external power supply network, and its battery is fully charged, i.e. on 100%. The next 2 hours of work on the laptop should be done directly when powered from the network. At the end of this time, the battery should be discharged to the full 0% and leave the laptop itself for half a day. Before switching on after such operation of the laptop it is necessary to conduct a full charging of its battery.

4. You must restart the Terminal and re-enter the pmset -g rawlog command. In the output, there must be a new value for the cap parameter. In the case where this procedure for the laptop is the first, then the restoration of a value equal to or approximate to the factory one, for the battery may not occur. A similar repeat procedure will help to correct the condition. The optimum frequency for it is from 2 times per month of time.

P.S: Access to the "Terminal" utility is made through the Utilities folder located in the Program directory.


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How to properly clean the MacBook keyboard

Food + drinks + keyboard - an explosive mixture that entails clogging of contacts, sticking keys and other unpleasant consequences for the user. In general, the picture is not pleasant. Despite the fact that the Apple Keyboard distance between the keys and the body is minimal to avoid getting under the body of dust, fibers and microparticles will not succeed. Consequently, sooner or later, there is a need to carry out cleaning work inside the keyboard. I will try to tell you how to do it correctly and without extra financial costs. 

1. The preparatory stage includes the collection of necessary materials and the disconnection of the keyboard from the computer. So, we will need cotton buds, toothpicks, credit / discount card, water, cloth-microfiber, alcohol / specialized liquid for gadget care. Turn off the keyboard or use the special program KeyboardCleanTool, which automatically blocks the keyboard. And better do both

2. External cleaning of the keyboard consists of the mechanical cleaning of the keyboard body from dust and dirt, using a microfiber and a small amount of special equipment or water.

3. Internal cleaning of the keyboard is the most responsible and time-consuming process. Have enough patience and free time, friends. 

  • Pry the upper left corner of the small button with your fingernail / toothpick / credit card and lift it evenly enough to understand how the internal fasteners are located. This is very important because brute force can lead to the breakdown of the built-in mechanisms. After evaluating the location of the fasteners, press the key in the desired direction until it clicks.
  • We shoot big keys. In addition to standard fasteners, they also have metal fasteners and clamps.
  • This is how our keyboard looks without the keys. Please note that we remove the movable aluminum fasteners as well.

  • Armed with wet napkins to disinfect monitors or paper towels with a small impregnation of alcohol. But it is better to give preference to specials. means. And we wash each key, throwing out napkins as they become soiled. If the keys are "gray" and the napkins do not take them, then users of the global network recommend using an eraser.
  • The inner elements are wiped with a lint-free (!) Cloth moistened with a small (!) Amount of water. Crumbs are blown into the hand - at the same time and light, we will train.

4. It's time to set the keys in place. The small keys will come back up after a slight click on the body - until it clicks. Large (those with metal fittings) should coincide with the built-in grooves, but the principle is the same.

P.S.: For the more effective protection of your keyboard, you can use a MacBook keyboard cover, but this is only if it's convenient for you

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I would like to say that in the first place everything depends on you and on your attitude towards your gadgets. After all, if you do not remember in time what and when to do good, nothing will turn out. Treat your technique as well as your pets and then you do not have to change your "pets" every 2-3 years!
Thank you all for attention! :)


Considering today’s continual security threats, which affect Information technology networks and systems worldwide, it is very important to practice basic security awareness. A normal system user can secure himself or herself by following these simple steps...

Author Comment

by:Muhammad Sajjad
Dear Thomas

Bundle of thanks for such valued suggestions, I will surely try to edit and repost the article.

Thanks Again

Expert Comment

by:Naveen Sharma
Nice points.

Taking regular backup and end-user education, few more security principles that will help to prevent breaches:
Lithium-ion batteries area cornerstone of today's portable electronic devices, and even though they are relied upon heavily, their chemistry and origin are not of common knowledge. This article is about a device on which every smartphone, laptop, and tablet depends.

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Very well written Article! Hope to see more of the same!

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Great article--accessible to the public but appropriately technical!
I'm a big fan of Windows' offline folder caching and have used it on my laptops for over a decade.  One thing I don't like about it, however, is how difficult Microsoft has made it for the cache to be moved out of the Windows folder. Here's how to do it.
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by:Jim Horn
Very well written, for the complexity of the subject matter it was pretty easy to follow along.  Voting Yes.
In this article you will get to know about pros and cons of storage drives HDD, SSD and SSHD.

Author Comment

by:Yashwant Vishwakarma
Thank You Jorge :) for upvoting my article.
Yes very true, now these days SSD are becoming popular and prices are also dropping.
Now we can hope for more SSD availability in market at low prices.

Have a gorgeous day ahead.. :)

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by:Giovanni Pontén
Good article, just would like to add one important fact that seldom gets mentioned, for laptop users in particular.
If using SSD and not doing regular backups of your files will leave you with very low probability of data recovery in case of accidental deletion of data. This is due to the way the SSD drive itself works. User deleted data become unrecoverable VERY fast.

One a desktop computer on the other hand, running the operating system off an SSD while keeping user files on a 2nd large HDD is an optimal solution to enjoy some performance boost.

So for a normal home user who possesses a laptop only, like my daughter, I'd definitely go for an SSHD or a traditional HDD. As an example, she panicked when accidently overwriting her picture library.... luckily it was stored on an HDD and all pictures could be recovered.
Sometimes a user will call me frantically, explaining that something has gone wrong and they have tried everything (read - they have messed it up more and now need someone to clean up) and it still does no good, can I help them?!  Usually the standard restart will fix most ills.  In this case a restart was unproductive.  It took me a moment to figure out this was probably something fairly simple and, most likely had happened to someone else already (which meant there was likely to be a solution online).

The problem:

You are working on a Windows 8.x laptop and you have an experience where your screen is suddenly all sideways,

(I  will confess, up front, that the solution to this dilemma did not come to me unbidden, or even with great effort.  I googled it and found something that looked like my problem and found a way to fix it. )

001-flipped.PNGYes sideways.  Or if you have a web browser open it may look like this one:

Note that if your machine is anything like my laptop or the one I fixed, it has a touchpad to control the mouse.  Everything is flipped.  So right is down and left is up, while up goes to the right and down goes to the left.  

The Solution:

There is an easy fix (which I found here and another Microsoft link here).  The basics in this article were good enough to get me started.  My desktop did not have the checkbox (allow the screen to auto-rotate) like the one pictured here.  This seems to only exist if you have a screen that flips as in a 2-in-1.
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by:Predrag Jovic
What was not in the article is why this is happening, this functionality is not part of Windows 7, 8, 10 etc by default.
Those hot keys are part of Intel Graphic and Media Control Panel and can be disabled (it is enabled by default), or if you want you can change key sequence (not recommended).
:)Intel Hot key
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Author Comment

by:Thomas Zucker-Scharff
Didn't know that.  I will investors and amend article of necessary.
You have seen this as an option on your internet browser before or it may be completely new to you. But what does this mean and why would I use this?
Computer running slow? Taking forever to open a folder, documents, or any programs that you didn't have an issue with before? Here are a few steps to help speed it up.

The programs mentioned below ALL have free versions, you can buy them if you want, but I suggest using the free version in this case.

First step is to check, and clean up, any viruses / malware you might have installed on your computer. Any good antivirus will help with this. There are many out there, if you don’t have any currently installed, you should do this right away. Many of the big names have free 30 day trials to find one you like. There are also many free ones, but they may only give you a quarter of the feature or not have real-time scanning as an option. The only downside is this could slightly slow your computer as it will be running in the background at all times. However, it is very important you have an antivirus program installed to help prevent you from becoming infecting and losing personal information.

Once installed run a full system scan and clean up any viruses it may find.

One suggested antivirus program to run is MalwareBytes found at ( Use the free version (this does not do real time scans unless you buy it. However it is free to do on demand scans for this case. However, I highly recommend buying a antivirus program from your favorite antivirus vendor (or do some research and pick which one is best for you).


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by:Rochelle Adsitt
Also - is a fabulous resource for installing the latest version of utilities and other software we've come to depend on (Adobe Reader, Flash, Java, Malwarebytes, etc.) cleanly and quickly. It installs the software for me and doesn't allow any of the extra junk (like toolbars) to get installed or enabled.

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CCleaner I mentioned above can be found at ( use the free version

i installed and analyzed saw 9243 mb worth of files. now cleaning them.

when i open the windows explorer (windows key+E)it is closing by itself in few seconds saying 'windows enountered a trying to find solution etc) not sure why
How can this article save you time AND money? In just a few minutes you may discover something you didn't know existed that is easy enough for you to fix yourself!

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by:Douglas Oerly
There are other things that, I feel, should be mentioned here.

When removing unwanted or unused programs from your computer, the standard windows uninstaller frequently leaves files and registry entries that should have been removed.  This is also true for some 3rd party uninstallers.  One program that consistently removes everything, and gives you an option for uninstalling in safe, medium and advanced modes is the Revo uninstaller.  It will present a list(s) of left-over items and allow you to select the ones you want to remove.  Even Microsoft Help Desk personnel use this program when remotely working on someones pc.  It begins by using the standard uninstaller (either the software's own or windows) then collects left-over information and presents it to you.  Very user-friendly.  Left-over registry entries are included in items presented to remove.

You can go to the start menu and click or type run and a window will open.  Type in %temp% and click <ok>.  A window will be opened that presents a list of files.  Select all of them and delete them.  Some may be open and so just skip their deletion.

Go to your C:\ drive icon in My Computer or the file explorer and right click on it and run Disk Clean up.  Here, you can clean up system files as well, such as, windows log files, left-over windows update files, and others.

Additionally, just running the defragmentation program does not ensure that all files have been defragmented.  Go to the start menu or search programs and enter cmd and select the program.  A Command prompt window will appear that you may be familiar with if you have ever used the old DOS prompt, which is basically what this is.  Type in defrag ? and <ENTER>.  A list of defrag options will be presented that you can specify when you run the defrag command from this window.  Specify the ones you want and run the program.  NOTE: you may need to run this with administrator privileges.  Do this by right clicking the cmd prompt program and then click run as administrator.

Always remember, your computer may never become faster than it was when you first purchased it and opened the box.  If it was slow to start with, barring pre-installed software, it will usually be this slow to end with and you may need to just go ahead and purchase one with a faster processor etc.  One item that may make a difference here is more RAM.

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by:Les Finch
The following comes from Wikipedia.
 "A myth has arisen that RDC significantly slows local file transfers and should be switched off; a Microsoft TechNet Web page by a Microsoft Directory Services Team member comprehensibly debunks this with detailed timings, additional to the fact that a service which is not invoked by software cannot have any effect, detrimental or otherwise"
 I did not find the TechNet page but would like to see Microsoft's comments on RDC.

I have found the most common causes of slow computers are
1- malware
2 - slow hard disks especially 2.5" drives. They do not report as faulty but the tests take an exceptionally long time to complete. We use Spinrite to test them
3 - as mentioned earlier, all the crap software the manufacturer has auto starting on boot. Ccleaner is great for disabling them.
4 - also mentioned earlier - not enough RAM

The Samsung SSD 840 EVO and 840 EVO mSATA have a well-known problem with a drop in read performance. I first learned about this in an interesting thread here at Experts Exchange:

Samsung recently released a fix for this problem in the form of "a new firmware and performance restoration software package for the 840 EVO and 840 EVO mSATA."

Article Update: Thanks to the heads-up from ScottCha in his comment on 15-Jul-2016, I have concluded that the "Performance Restoration Software" is no longer available at the Samsung website. While the first link below is still valid and takes you to the Tools download page, the "Performance Restoration Software" is not there. The Samsung Magician Software and the firmware updates are there, so I'm guessing that Samsung views those as the solution to the problem. If anyone reading this article has more information to offer, please post a comment.

The download for it may be found in the "Samsung SSD 840 EVO Performance Restoration Software" section at this link:

I was experiencing performance problems on a laptop with a 250 GB Samsung SSD 840 EVO running W7 Pro 64-bit. I downloaded the Samsung software from here (it's in a ZIP file):

Article Update: The two links below no longer work and I cannot find the "Performance Restoration Software" anywhere at the Samsung website. My suggestions at this point are to update your SSD's firmware and use the Samsung Magician Software, both of which are available at the link above.

I installed it a few days ago following the instructions in the Samsung Performance Restoration v.1.1 Introduction and Installation Guide:

I encourage you to read that manual thoroughly before installation, as there are many caveats in it — see the "Precautions" and "General Limitations" sections.

A caveat of my own: When the firmware update reached the 80% completion point, I received a Windows message saying that new hardware was detected and that I should reboot. I suspect this occurred because the firmware update reached a point where Windows Plug and Play kicked in and detected the "new" drive. Unfortunately, this is not documented in the Samsung manual. I did not know if I should do the reboot at that time or wait until the firmware update completed at 100%. I opted for the latter, as I was quite sure that stopping the firmware update at 80% wasn't a good idea — and it worked out well.

I also felt protected on the decision, as I had done a clone of the SSD to an external (USB) HDD using Casper. So even if I bricked the SSD, I could get a new one and clone to it from the HDD. And that's another caveat — I strongly recommend doing a clone before undertaking any firmware update of your primary drive.

The installation on the W7 Pro 64-bit laptop with the 250 GB SSD 840 EVO worked perfectly. After a few days of use, I can say that performance is significantly improved — back to where it was when I first installed the SSD around 2.5 months ago. However, I can't be certain about cause and effect. This experience is anecdotal, not statistical. I pass it along for other EE members to consider if you are having performance problems with your Samsung SSD 840 EVO or 840 EVO mSATA.

Article Update on 17-December-2014: I ran the software again last night on a Windows 8 system, this time capturing the screens along the way for this article.

After unzipping and running the program, User Account Control (UAC) prompts for elevation:


Make sure it shows Samsung as the verified publisher. It then takes you through the setup wizard with an option to launch when completed:







After launching, the program goes through four steps, the first being the firmware update:


It provides a warning about the risk of firmware updates:


As I already mentioned earlier in the article, I recommend heeding this warning and creating a clone (or image) of the drive before running the program.

After the first step (Firmware Update), it does a timer-based automatic shutdown:


After the reboot, it performs Step 1:


Then Step 2:


Then Step 3:


It will say "Performance Restoration is complete." when it reaches the 100% mark:


The last dialog box simply asks if you want to close the program, which I did:


One difference between this run and the previous one is that this one did not prompt for a reboot at the 80 per cent completion mark. I can't explain that. It is possibly due to a difference between W7 and W8, but I don't know.

The installation on the W8 Pro 64-bit laptop with the 250 GB SSD 840 EVO worked perfectly. After some use last night and this morning, I can say that performance has improved. However, as I stated with respect to the W7 system, I can't be certain about cause and effect. Like the previous one, this experience is anecdotal, not statistical.

If you find this article to be helpful, please click the thumbs-up icon below. This lets me know what is valuable for EE members and provides direction for future articles. Thanks very much! Regards, Joe

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Expert Comment

by:Scott C
Getting ready to do this on my SSD this weekend and noticed that the last 2 links are no longer valid. You might want to look into them.

Great article.  Hopefully I'll get my speed back.

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Author Comment

by:Joe Winograd
Hi Scott,
Thanks for the alert — I didn't know that the links went bad. It's just about impossible to keep links up-to-date in a large number of published articles and videos, so I really appreciate your heads-up on this one. I'll do some research and update the article accordingly. And thanks for the compliment and the upvote — both very much appreciated! Regards, Joe

Update: After researching the Samsung website, I've come to the conclusion that Samsung no longer offers the "Performance Restoration" software. My guess is that the latest firmware update and the Samsung Magician Software are now the solution, as those links still exist. I will update the article accordingly.
For some time some of our users experienced package loss on a couple of our Lenovo Thinkpad S531 machines running Windows 8 or Windows 8.1 64-bit OS. I was not able to find many answers online, but did after some investigation I began to suspect Bluetooth as being part of the problem.

I found a number of articles describing different performance issues related to Broadcom and this particular Lenovo series laptop, but sadly no article was directly related to this incident.

What happens?
When you browse the web, for example news sites or Facebook you might not experience anything, other than it might be a little slow. If you were to use some online tools, like synching emails then you would feel the pain in a way that the Internet is not working.

What i tried
I did updates to the computers' BIOS, followed by Windows updates and Lenovo driver updates. I also tried disabling some interfering services while trying to reset all of the network settings in Windows as well. I first suspected Bluetooth as having a part in this when I could see a slight increase of performance with less package loss when I disabled all Bluetooth services. It wasn't perfect, but about 30 per cent better.

The solution= Disable Bluetooth Collaboration
Keep in mind my setup:
Lenovo Thinkpad S531
Windows 8 & 8.1 64-bit OS
Broadcom WiFi BCM43XX
  1. Start by opening up Device Manager
  2. Right click the wifi network adapter and then choose "Properties".

Expert Comment

thank you
Dell XPS 12 CoonvertibleI am not new to IT, I have been working in the field since 1985.  But recently I came up against something that stumped even me (it doesn't happen as often as I would like).  I was running a screencasting session from the laptop to my TV via ChromeCast (I love it).  About half way through the movie that my wife and I were watching, the screen on the laptop went black.  I figured it was because I didn't have it plugged in and it was conserving power.

When we finished I tried to wake up the computer in all the normal ways.  The keyboard lit up but the screen stayed black.  

I tried rebooting, but holding the power key for the 10 seconds I usually do for my desktops, if they have a similar problem, did absolutely nothing.  I decided to wait until the next day.  In the meantime I charged it up, it was down to 20% according to the lights on the side.

The next morning I woke up and when I had gotten dressed I tried waking it again - no luck.  No luck trying to reboot either (this time I held the power toggle for a count of 20).  On the bus on my way to work I asked the one person I thought might know the answer, my son Aram.  He is a wiz with computers, has one of these very laptops, and has a degree in Computer Science/security (check him out at  I texted him and after a couple of back and forth questions he suggested trying the reboot again, by holding the power toggle longer (these machines apparently need that) - his words were "a long …
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I had the same problem recently with a Toshiba laptop. After going through all this with their tech support, it turned out to be a bad motherboard and had to go back for replacement.

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As hardware bugs go, this is a strange one! I upgraded a laptop in December 2011 with a 512GB Crucial m4 2.5-inch/9.5mm SATA Solid State Drive (SSD), Crucial part number CT512M4SSD2:

The SSD installed perfectly in a Core i7, W7/64-bit laptop – no problems whatsoever. The laptop had awesome performance, thanks to both the upgrade to the SSD and an upgrade to 16GB of DDR3 memory.

Fast forward to the end of last month and all of a sudden the machine starts freezing/hanging. The first time it happened, I figured it was the odd glitch and simply rebooted, which seemed to fix the problem. But about an hour later, same thing! Another reboot, another seeming fix, but an hour or so guessed it!

So I started looking for the problem. First thought was the 16GB RAM upgrade – could the memory be bad? So I ran Memtest86 overnight, completing almost three full passes. No errors!

Second thought was Classic Shell, which I installed because I don't like the W7 Start Menu. The problem seemed to occur when I hit the Start button, but this proved to be happenstance, as the problem did not go away after uninstalling Classic Shell.

Third thought was that I noticed a large number of Windows Updates that occurred late in the evening on the day before the problem first hit. I was just about to blame Microsoft, go back to a restore …
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Expert Comment

by:Alan Hardisty
Perfect timing!  I just installed one to my laptop yesterday and wouldn't want to have to wait 8 months for the laptop to start freezing up on me (and I am sure the last thing I would suspect is a drive that had been working properly for 8 months).

Updated the firware from 000F to 010G and look forward to a fully responsive laptop for years to come.

Thanks for writing up your experience / findings.  I'm just glad I saw this tweeted today (I don't always check Twitter).

Yes vote from me.

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Author Comment

by:Joe Winograd
Thanks for the Yes vote – much appreciated! And thanks for the heads-up on the tweet. I do have a Twitter account, but don't use it, so I would not have known about it. Regards, Joe
I originally posted this Article Here and thought I would now share with the Experts Exchange community.

Driver Problems
Often when you format your windows pc or laptop you will boot up to a desktop and find you have no sound or the video is not working at the correct resolution, etc.
The reason is most likely there was not a driver installed when you did the format. Without a driver installed for the device then the operating system cannot communicate with the hardware and it will not work. I will keep the scope of this article limited to fining a driver for a device that does not have a driver installed.

First step

If you are lucky, then your lan or Wlan driver was put on.
With this, you can access the internet and get the latest and most stable drivers.
If not, then find the driver cd that would have come with your computer when it was       purchased.

 On most driver cd’s, you can manually choose which driver you want to install.  The only one you want on cd is the internet driver.
Should you not have the internet driver already installed, or cannot obtain a driver cd, then it is always good to have a spare computer working and on the internet so you can download drivers.

If you have to obtain the internet driver from a spare computer, you can …

I recently purchased an HP EliteBook 2540p notebook/laptop. It has two video ports on it – VGA and DisplayPort. HP offers an optional docking station for the 2540p that also has both a VGA port and a DisplayPort. There are numerous online reports documenting that the docking station can drive two monitors simultaneously (obviously, one via the VGA port and the other via the DisplayPort), but I could not find anyone reporting that the notebook itself (without the docking station) can drive both. So I decided to give it a try. Here are the results.

The one word answer is – YES! Running 64-bit Windows 7 Professional (this is the standard, bundled OS for the 2540p), I tested it in two different setups (although tested only in W7, there's no reason I can think of that it wouldn't work in W8/8.1, W10, or, for that matter, any Windows OS that the laptop can run). The first setup consisted of a Dell 2707WFP 27" flat panel LCD monitor (connected via VGA) and a Dell 2709W 27" flat panel LCD monitor (connected via DisplayPort). The 2540p drove both at 1920x1200 resolution and 32-bit color (in an extended desktop configuration) with excellent performance. The only downside is that the notebook cannot drive the built-in LCD at the same time. I experimented with it for a while and found that it can handle just two displays at a time, not three. So it can drive either both of the external monitors or one of the external monitors and the notebook LCD. I happily gave up the 12.1", 1280x800 notebook display for the 27", 1920x1200 monitor.

Neither of the Dell monitors has built-in speakers, so I was unable to test whether the DisplayPort sends audio (theoretically, it should). This led to the second test, which consisted of an I-INC iH282HPB 27.5" flat panel LCD monitor (connected via VGA) and a Hannspree HF289HJB 27.5" flat panel LCD monitor (connected via DisplayPort). Once again, the 2540p drove both at 1920x1200 resolution and 32-bit color (in an extended desktop configuration) with excellent performance. Now for more good news – the DisplayPort sends the audio, too!

One point worth making about the I-INC iH282HPB and Hannspree HF289HJB is that neither has a DisplayPort connector. They both have HDMI ports, but that proved not to be a problem. I tried two configurations: a cable with a DisplayPort connector on one end and an HDMI on the other; and a standard HDMI cable with a DisplayPort-to-HDMI adapter/converter. To test the first, I purchased a StarTech DisplayPort (male) to HDMI (male) 10-foot cable (model number DP2HDMIMM10). To test the second, I purchased a StarTech DisplayPort (male) to HDMI (female) Video Adapter Converter (model number DP2HDMI) and connected it to a standard HDMI cable (male-male). Both configurations worked perfectly, carrying audio and video (1920x1200/32-bit-color) to the HDMI monitor, while simultaneously driving the VGA monitor (1920x1200/32-bit-color) in an extended desktop configuration. So, for folks with a monitor that has HDMI but not DisplayPort, there's an excellent, inexpensive solution, as the cable or the adapter/converter is available now at Amazon for around $15.

One other point: if you have a monitor that has neither DisplayPort nor HDMI, but does have DVI-D, that should work, although I haven't tested this. Similar to the above, you may get either a DisplayPort (male) to DVI-D (male) cable or a DisplayPort (male) to DVI-D (female) adapter/converter. The value of the latter is that you may then utilize the DVI-D cable (male-male) that is typically bundled with monitors that have a DVI-D port. Again, StarTech makes such an adapter (model number DP2DVI), available now at Amazon for around $10. But, I repeat that I haven't tried this. If you try it, please add a comment to this article with your results.

In summary, for all of you Experts Exchange members with an HP EliteBook 2540p, enjoy the landscape provided by two, large screen, high resolution, external monitors – without the need for a docking station! If you find this article to be helpful, please click the thumbs-up icon below. This lets me know what is valuable for EE members and provides direction for future articles. Thanks very much! Regards, Joe


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by:Joe Winograd
Two updates to this article: (1) I tested a DisplayPort-to-DVI-D adapter and it does, indeed, work, as discussed towards the end of the article. (2) One of the articles on my to-do list is about a video adapter/converter (known as as "active" adapter) that allows three monitors (or two monitors and the built-in display) to work on some laptops in some configurations. However, I tried it on the HP EliteBook 2540p, both on the laptop itself and on the VU895UT Docking Station, and with a DisplayPort-to-HDMI active adapter in one test and a DisplayPort-to-DVI-D active adapter in another test – none of the four tests was able to get the built-in display working at the same time as the two external monitors. Regards, Joe
Administrator-level BIOS passwords on laptops can cause significant trouble for owners and support techs. They are easy to install, but if unknown they are expensive to impossible to remove. This article is a summary of what is known.
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by:Patrick Matthews
From the bio:

Dr. Klahn is building a PC of extraordinary magnitude!

You have our gratitude.

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Let me comment on "If a system has the TPM installed it must go back to the manufacturer.  Any attempt to tamper with a system that has a TPM will result in rendering the machine inoperable" - I see no reason why that should be true. If a mainboard has a TPM, it does not even mean that it is activated or used. I suggest to change the paragraph to reflect that this will only apply in very rare cases like using the TPM together with bitlocker for full disk encryption. Even then, changing the password will not render the machine unusable but rather have it ask for a bitlocker recovery key.

The old question "My laptop screen is black what can it be ?".









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Nice article , Grant!
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Good idea using a 9V battery to test the CCFL.
When you hit the power button on your laptop and it does nothing there are a couple of things that you need to check. You will need to check your Ac Power Adapter and your DC Power Jack.

 Tip: If you have checked your Ac power adapter and know it is good and
 If you plug your AC power adapter in your DC power jack and press the power button and move the AC power adapter plug up and down and from side to side ,
 and you see your lights trying to come on you have a bad DC power jack and can use the this article to learn how to repair the DC power jack.

 Tools You will need.
     1. Digital Multi Meter
     2. Soldering Iron
     3. Small Wire
     4. Solder
     5. Phillips screw driver to disassemble you laptop.
     6. Solder paste flux.

  Things you can learn from this article.
     1. How to diagnose your DC power jack to see if it is bad.
     2. How to repair your DC power jack.
 If you can not solder you can practice on old motherboards until you are confident enough in your soldering ability's to try this.

 You can at least learn how to use a digital multi meter to test your DC power jack and see if it is bad.

 First thing is check the AC power adapter click the link below.

Next Check your DC power jack .

 The first thing you will need to do is disassemble your laptop down to the …
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Step 1 should be to reset the switch logic.  I can't tell you how many times I've "fixed" a notebook or desktop by telling the user to unplug from the wall (remove laptop battery) and hold the power button for 5-10 seconds.  Drains all the caps, defaults the power status, then when you reconnect AC power, the motherboard can complete the logic problem:  I'm "off" > somebody pressed "on"

I haven't gone through the rest, as I've only done this a couple of times to obvious broken solder points or cracked jacks.  Didn't need to do much but solder the replacement on then plug it in.

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by:Coralie Crumrine
Very nice article. Thank you for the details and step by step. This is going into my knowledge base toolbox!


For the past 15 years, mobility has been a top priority for employers, employees, students and all kind of people. Having more and more in your portable phone or "smartphone" is a priority and being able to work while on a plane, bus or taxi is a must.

Is not uncommon to see people in all kind of clothes open a portable computer on an airplane and start writing numbers and making graphics on a spreadsheet or fine-tunning a slide presentation. This article is meant to serve as a guide for people to make the right decision when purchasing a new portable computer. It is aimed to both the consumer market (students, wifes, husbands, kids and even grandparents) and the corporate/IT sector, wherever desktop computers and workstations are being replaced by these smaller screens with a keyboard.

Note: In the following, I will present a mix of opinions and hard-earned knowledge.  Not everyone will agree with all of my suggestions, but I do hope that at least some of the following will be useful to you!
This article will focus on three main aspects: Need, Budget  & Useful Life. Each of these aspects will be discussed in every category: Home Use, Students, Office Work & Power Users.

For all Windows-based systems (or PCs) the OS of choice is Windows 7. Period.

I will assume you are familiar with some of the terms I've used in this article like RAM memory or CPU. If you don't, it's OK!  Don't worry …

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by:فروشگاه اینترنتی
Choosing a computer and being in a unique, lightweight, easy-to-carry case to fit anywhere, is a priority for each individual in the selection, along with a pure quality.
 فروشگاه اينترنتي
thanks alot
When you press your power button on your laptop and the LCD screen just stays black.  What is the problem?

Possible problem can be the on-board video chip or Video Card.
Possible problem can be the power inverter.
Possible problem can be the back light of the LCD screen.
Bad LCD Cable Connections

On-board VIDEO CHIP or Video Card BAD

First let's look at the possibility that your video chip on your motherboard is bad.  You can also have a separate video card instead of on-board video chip.

If you press the power button on your laptop and you just get a blank screen, then you need to do a couple of checks to see just what the problem might be.

1) If the LED lights are on and you hear the fan in the laptop running and hard drive working but there is no video, that usually means the video chip on the motherboard has gone bad.  This can be repaired by re-flowing the video chip. You will have to find a good repair tech that knows what he is doing for this repair.  It might cost in the neighborhood of $150.00 for this repair.

2) Plug a external monitor to the laptop and see if you have any video. If you see video on your external monitor then your video is OK.
When your power inverter is bad or the back light is bad, you can usually see a faint image on the LCD screen.

Power Inverter / Backlight BAD

Before accusing the battery of being bad be sure to test if the Power Adaptor is working properly.
Click Here( .

From the first time you charge your battery, they start to decrease their life span, so be sure to take notice of the symptoms of a dying (or dead) battery.

Some symptoms of a bad battery include:
 1.Short time of running the laptop (1hour).
 2.When on battery power alone, the laptop just shuts off for no apparent reason.

If you do not have an operating system installed, one of the best places to start is in your BIOS.
The BIOS contains valuable information about your battery. It will let you know if your battery's life is already exceeded its life or if it is ok at the moment.

If you have windows installed, then go to your Control Panel then click on Power Options.   From there, you can see if your battery is charging or not. Also, while you are in Power Options Properties window,  there is a basic test you can do to see if your battery needs to be replaced.

1. Charge the battery to 100% .
2. Pull up the computers clock by double clicking on the time in the system tray.
3. Mark your time for 10 minutes and unplug the power adapter from the laptop.
4. If you are losing more than 1% per minute, or if you lose more than 10% in 10 minutes then your battery needs to be replaced.

AC Adapters

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Hey thanks DrDamnit . I am not the best at grammar and writing but I do want to help people on this site.
Looks good to me go ahead and publish.
Sometimes you have a CD / DVD drive that will not show up in Windows Explorer under My Computer.  There could be a number of reasons for this, which this article will discuss.   I will cover a few basic ways you can try to find the problem yourself.

Some of the symptoms of a bad CD / DVD drive are

1. It is loud

This can happen if there is a disk in the drive tray or not.

2. Computer will not read the disk.

When you put a disk in, it may not show up in Windows.
Tip: Download a LINUX LIVE CD and boot it up.  See if you can put a CD in and it works properly. I use one that you can download from here: If you can boot from this live CD then the drive is working properly to boot into Linux at this point.

This can help greatly in figuring out if it is a Windows Problem or a Hardware Problem.

3. The system will not recognize the drive at all.

It will not show up in the BIOS, Device Manager, or it may have a splat next to it in the device manager.

4. Software conflict

I have seen a conflict with other software that cause a problem in the registry and the drive will not show up in the Device Manager.  You can check it out buy going into RegEdit.
If you have never been in your registry before I would recommend you not to try this check as you may delete the wrong key and cause yourself more problems. If you would like to try this, then here we go.

1. Click Start RUN and in the Run box type regedit

Laptops Notebooks





A laptop or notebook is a portable personal computer with a clamshell form factor, suitable for mobile use. Although originally there was a distinction between laptops and notebooks, the former being bigger and heavier than the latter, there is often no longer any difference. Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in education, and for personal multimedia. A laptop combines the components, inputs, outputs and capabilities of a desktop computer, including the display screen, speakers, a keyboard, and pointing devices (such as a touchpad or trackpad) into a single unit. The device can be powered either from a rechargeable battery or by mains electricity from an AC adapter.