Linux Distributions

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A Linux distribution is an operating system made as a software collection based on the Linux kernel and, often, on a package management system and are available for a variety of systems. A typical Linux distribution comprises a Linux kernel, GNU tools and libraries, additional software, documentation, a window system (the most common being the X Window System), a window manager, and a desktop environment. Most Linux systems are open-source software made available both as compiled binaries and in source code form, allowing modifications to the original software. Over three hundred distributions are in active development, including commercially backed distributions (such as Fedora, openSUSE and Ubuntu) and community-driven distributions (such as Debian, Slackware, Gentoo and Arch Linux).

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Could I for example have this setup on a MacBook Pro with a 2 TB SSD drive?:

Mac OS X, Windows 10, the Chromebook OS, two Linux distributions, and Unix.

And then I can switch between each of these with the press of a button? Or, as I received an answer earlier regarding this, I instead need to log out and log into each of the OSs (there was some advantage with this)?

When it comes to making an image of the OSs for quick recovery when needed, should I have only 1 single backup image of the whole VM (including all OSs), or should I have separate backup images for each of the different OSs? I think the second alternative would be best, because it's always not optimal to use a backup image (the performance is not the same, somewhat less performance).

When it comes to being visible on the internet, would I be a more easy target using a MacBook Pro and the VM with different OSs?

What about wifi connection and noise from the fan for a MacBook Pro? Is the wifi working excellent to connect to any network, and is there no risk for a lot of noise from the fan when running software in different OSs or when accessing certain websites?
0
Free Tool: SSL Checker
LVL 8
Free Tool: SSL Checker

Scans your site and returns information about your SSL implementation and certificate. Helpful for debugging and validating your SSL configuration.

One of a set of tools we are providing to everyone as a way of saying thank you for being a part of the community.

I use ubuntu and i have a scanner.  is this enough to make a digital signature?  i only know someone called me on the phone and wanted a signature but they knew nothing about ubuntu and ///////i know nothing about digital signatures.
0
Dear Experts, I tried running the following GP program on my Fedora box:

package main

import (
	"io/ioutil"
	"log"
	"strings"
)

func main() {
	input, err := ioutil.ReadFile("/home/david/testdir/testfile")
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalln(err)
	}

	lines := strings.Split(string(input), "\n")

	for i, line := range lines {
		if strings.Contains(line, "ChangeMeDoain") {
			lines[i] = "banana.com"
		}
	}
	output := strings.Join(lines, "\n")
	err = ioutil.WriteFile("/home/david/testdir/testfile", []byte(output), 0644)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalln(err)
	}
}

Open in new window


which should search for the string "ChangeMeDomain" and change it to "banana.com"

However, it changes the entire line.

Any ideas how to change only the string in question?
0
Hi,

Configuration Raspberry Pi 3 with camera
QNAP TS-453 Pro

I have a Raspberry Pi 3 up and running with the help of this image: http://ronnyvdbr.github.io/RaspberryIPCamera/
The guy who developed the image has a blog where he describes how to connect the Raspberry to Survellance Station:
https://random-notes-of-a-sysadmin.blogspot.nl/2016/03/howto-set-up-raspberry-ip-camera-on.html

I tried it and can connect to Surveillance Station, using these settings:

Camerabrand:       Generic Model
CameraModel:      Generic RSTP
Cameraname:        Camera 1
HTTP URL:              /
IP address:             192.168.10.10
Port:                        80
RSTP Port:              8554
Username:             <empty>
Password:              <empty>

When I use the rstp url in VLC, it works great: rtsp://192.168.10.10:8554
On Surveillance Station, every now and then the connection works, the camera in connected and I can see what it's filming.
After less than a minute the camera is disconnected.

For now it looks like the only times I had a successful connection when I played the stream in VLC as well....
But I can not reproduce that, because it's not working this way every time....

What could be the cause of this ?
0
Hi EE,

I have an old Ubuntu 12.10 that Im going to upgrade, but before doing that I would like to do a backup.
Im not an expert on Ubuntu and I have read https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BackupYourSystem but gotten stuck on what should I use to do a full backup of my Ubuntu before upgrading it?

Thanks.
0
Update issue when running 'yum update'
Mirror list issue when running a 'yum update'
0
all of the sudden all my 3 VMs failed to boot.

RHEL 6.9  running on ESXi 6.5.  I have other VMs working fine.

I tried to boot from previous kernel 6.8 version. still same issue. I can't go to single user mode either.
no vmware VM configuration changed so far.
0
hey i am using kali linux and just trying to open Facebooker.pl in the terminal but it always says bash: ./Facebooker.pl :Permission Denied
0
Hi,

what are the best practices and features, options while using grep.

i am using these days to search in log files, files, directories, content etc

When should i give single quote '  '
like
zgrep 'xyz' aaa.gz


When should i give double quote " "
like
zgrep "xyz" aaa.gz


how to use tail and head etc along with grep to effectively monitor last or first 100 lines etc
please advise
0
Hi,

I keep getting below error when i wrote hello.sh shell script file and try to open it to.



Swap file ".hello.sh.swp" already exists!
[O]pen Read-Only, (E)dit anyway, (R)ecover, (Q)uit, (A)bort:



why it created .swp file autoatically?
why it asks above question. How to tell unix not to ask that question.
please advise
0
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Hi,

I am trying below program

http://www.programmingunit.com/2013/04/19/shell-script-to-check-leap-year/

how to save and execute above shell script and see output and send output to different files say test123.txt. please advise

i tried using vi editor as sample.sh and pasted content.

did esc to escape from isnert mode then shift zz to comeback to regular screen from vi mode

]$ vi sample.sh

[1]+  Stopped                 vim sample.sh

Not sure what it mean by stopped as above i saw message

when i ran getting error
]$ ./sample.sh
-bash: ./sample.sh: No such file or directory

when i do ls -ltr i do not see sample.sh though
0
Hi,

I like to write a unix shell script to check calendar year, date, current working directory.

how to write and shave .sh file(Say test.sh) and how to execute to see the output.

Any detailed link explaining these steps with screenshots. please advise
0
What are differences between
touch cat vi differences

which one is better to use to create a file. When to use which one. please advise
0
Hi,

I want to replace workd with wood in aaaa.txt file.
how to achived it.

tried below not working.

sed -n '/world/!p' aaaa.txt:s/wood/xx aaaa.txt


sed: can't read aaaa.txt:s/wood/xx: No such file or directory

please advise
0
what is difference between below commands

1. ifconfig
2./sbin/ifconfig
3. nslookup hostname

when to use which one.
please advise
0
umask 133;touch dir2

why above command created the directory with 501 permission when i do umask
-rw-r--r-- 1 xxxxxxx 501    0 May  3 16:38 dir2


how to give read write etc all permisson?


$ umask 111;touch file1.txt


-rw-rw-rw- 1 xxxxxxxx 501    0 May  3 16:36 file1.txt

why above command created the file with 501 permission when i do umask.
how to give read write etc all permisson?

is not 777 is all permision?
0
Hi,

When we use below

comm diff cmp unix commands

when i ran comm command why it gave below out put
$ comm aaa.txt aaaa.txt
a
b
c
d
ssssshhhqqq
        this is gp
        writing
comm: file 2 is not in sorted order
        here
        and
        all


what it means by sorted order not there?

please advise
0
Hi,

unix how to search all linked and hidden files in current directory.

any good comprehensive link to read all unix command one place.
how to use manual

like

manual help for varios commands lilke grep etc

my prompt is like $
not sure which version or flavor of unix i have. how to check it?

Please advise
0
I need to replicate a template installation of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12-SP2 from one HPE Proliant DL380 Gen9 to some other servers of the same type and hardware configuration.

They have two disks, sda and sdb, where
sda1 = EFI-BOOT
sda2 = swap
sda3 = Linux System (BtrFS)
sdb1 = data (xfs)

UEFI SafeBoot is disabled.

I've built a script that roughly does the following in as SysRescueCD environment (stripped down to the basic tasks ...):
sfdisk -d /dev/sda > $targetdir/sda.PartTbl.txt
sfdisk -d /dev/sdb > $targetdir/sdb.PartTbl.txt
swaplabel /dev/sda2 | grep UUID | awk '{print $2}' | tee $targetdir/swap.UUID 
fsarchiver -o savefs $targetdir/sda1.fsa /dev/sda1
fsarchiver -o savefs $targetdir/sda3.fsa /dev/sda3
fsarchiver -o savefs $targetdir/sdb1.fsa /dev/sdb1

Open in new window


For restoring the system on the target (SysRecueCD again ...) the respective script does
swapUUID=$(cat $sourcedir/swap.UUID)

sfdisk /dev/sda < $sourcedir/sda.PartTbl.txt
sfdisk /dev/sdb < $sourcedir/sdb.PartTbl.txt

wipefs -a /dev/sda1 
wipefs -a /dev/sda2 
wipefs -a /dev/sda3 
wipefs -a /dev/sdb1 

fsarchiver restfs $sourcedir/sda1.fsa id=0,dest=/dev/sda1
mkswap -U $swapUUID /dev/sda2 
fsarchiver restfs $sourcedir/sda3.fsa id=0,dest=/dev/sda3 
fsarchiver restfs $sourcedir/sdb1.fsa id=0,dest=/dev/sdb1 

Open in new window


When I boot up the target afterwards, it runs into emergency mode. Inspecting the  journal - as recommended - with journalctl -xb, it reveals that the system ails to mount /var/opt, /var/crash, /usr/local, /var/spool, /var/home and several others.

Any hint how to solve that ?
0
Free learning courses: Active Directory Deep Dive
LVL 1
Free learning courses: Active Directory Deep Dive

Get a firm grasp on your IT environment when you learn Active Directory best practices with Veeam! Watch all, or choose any amount, of this three-part webinar series to improve your skills. From the basics to virtualization and backup, we got you covered.

My  VMware machine is not booting.
"vsd-mount                      [!!]
you have entered the recovery shell. the situation you are in may be recoverable.
if you are able to fix this situation the boot process will continue normally after you exit this terminal
/bin/sh: can't access tty; job control turned off"
0
I'm trying to do the following Unix equiv in Windows :

*Probe for active domain/website (usually HTTP CODE 200 OK, something even as
  HTTP CODE 301 Redirects)
for url in $(cat list1.txt) ; do curl --max-time 6 -sL -w "%{http_code} %{url_effective}\\n" "$url" -o /dev/null; done > list2.txt
grep "^200" list2.txt > list3.txt
sed 's,200 ,,' list3.txt > list4.txt


Any free tools can do the above?   Or any Windows command line tool equiv of curl?
0
Hi Folks

I have installed SSH so many times on CentOS 6.5 servers and they all run perfectly. The difference with my latest server is that I've left the Gnome interface running and the server is running in runlevel 5.

I have edited the sshd_config file to permit root login and have selected a specific port to run on i.e. 112.

I have disabled IP Tables and, as far as I am aware, SELinux is not running on the server although I'm not 100% certain of that.

When I type:
# service sshd restart I always get "Failed" first for the stop and then OK for the start.

If I do a ps -ax | grep ssh I get:

  2357 ?        S      0:00 /usr/bin/ck-xinit-session /usr/bin/ssh-agent /etc/X11/xinit/Xclients
 2590 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/bin/ssh-agent /etc/X11/xinit/Xclients
14698 pts/1    S+     0:00 grep ssh

Can anyone tell me where I'm going wrong?

All the best
Chris
0
Hi Folks

I have created a 500Gb server which I'm intending to use as a mail server. I have suddenly realised that the unit has defaulted to a 50Gb "/" partition or volume and a 480Gb "/home" partition or volume (sorry not sure on the terminology).

I began rsyncing the data from my original mail server (Zimbra) and after a couple of Gb had been transferred I realised that it was all being copied to the "/" partition which at 50Gb is WAY too small.

Is there a way to tell the server to reverse the partitions or actually delete the "/home" volume and only have the one volume, i.e. the "/' volume?

Or is the only way around this issue to destroy the whole thing and rebuild from scratch?

Many thanks in anticipation of some help with this.
Chris
0
Hello Folks,

I have a script *.sh That I like to install to few machines (IPs Address), is there anyway anybody can help me write script to do multiples at the same time ?

By the way I'm currently using centos x64

I'd appreciate it and thanks for looking
0
Hi,

I have a 'Let's Encrypt' SSL Certificate securing my website which failed to auto-renew this morning. I installed it onto my digitalocean server using the tutorial provided by them at the point of setup. It included the setting up of a cron-job that should auto-renew the certificate before it ran out but this has failed giving the following error: -

All renewal attempts failed. The following certs could not be renewed:
/etc/letsencrypt/live/www.example.com/fullchain.pem (failure)
Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/www.example.com.conf

Open in new window


Is it best to simply re-install a new certificate? What's the best way to proceed?

J
0

Linux Distributions

26K

Solutions

15

Articles & Videos

20K

Contributors

A Linux distribution is an operating system made as a software collection based on the Linux kernel and, often, on a package management system and are available for a variety of systems. A typical Linux distribution comprises a Linux kernel, GNU tools and libraries, additional software, documentation, a window system (the most common being the X Window System), a window manager, and a desktop environment. Most Linux systems are open-source software made available both as compiled binaries and in source code form, allowing modifications to the original software. Over three hundred distributions are in active development, including commercially backed distributions (such as Fedora, openSUSE and Ubuntu) and community-driven distributions (such as Debian, Slackware, Gentoo and Arch Linux).