Network Architecture





Network design and methodology, also known as network architecture, is the design of a communication network. It is a framework for the specification of a network's physical components and their functional organization and configuration, its operational principles and procedures, as well as data formats used in its operation. In telecommunication, the specification of a network architecture may also include a detailed description of products and services delivered via a communications network, as well as detailed rate and billing structures under which services are compensated.

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Dear Experts

We have been asked to deploy on premise mail server for which we are planning to go for zimbra network but before to that we have to design the network,  though this email server will be working for internal within main office and branch office as it is connected in mpls network but we also would like to send and receive mails to external domains following measures to be taken
1. if our server or internet goes down the sender mail should not get lost for us once the server or internet gets restored the mails should be delivered to our emails accounts.
2. our domain and ip reputation should be always good so that our messages gets delivered to the inbox on the recipient email
please suggest on how our email server to be configured have internal dns server and make it work as normal email server and for external we have to avail SMTP RELAY service with some service provider please suggest is this correct if not please suggest what service we have to avail for external email delivery with email security will be taken care.
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Dear Experts

to setup new office what IP addressing is recommended as it is common to use but I would like to go for something different and this network will have to be get connected over the VPN from other location and they may be using,  this new network yet to be setup will have internal dns and dhcp and leased line and mpls connectivity. the total users or end devices within this network will not be more than 75, I prefer other than is there a recommend/best  practice in selecting a particular ip addressing for private lan network please suggest,  is it good to go with or something like or any other ip addressing recommended please suggest.
How to combine two subnets?
AM  Volunteer IT for church.  Have one wired network, one server (W12 running DHCP) on 192.168.0 subnet mask with printer/copiers wired workstations connected thru POE switches to Zxyel Firewall/switch to Comcast.  File sharing and SQL databases on server.  Zyxel also splits off to VIOP phone system. Originally had some Dlink routers acting as Access points for wireless (worked, but campus not fully covered).

Independently, another volunteer got approval to purchase campus wide wireless.  Third party installed Ruckus wireless POE units (10, one a controller) on subnet 10.59.0 subnet mask running separate DHCP for wireless side (one workstation is also connected to this subnet).  All Dlink routers were removed. Supposedly inherent to the Ruckus system is health checking and repair/restoration of the Ruckus access points without human intervention.  I have no manuals or training on the Ruckus wireless system.

Needless to say, workstations (wired or wireless) on one subnet cannot see across the subnets. i.e. file explorer does not show machines on other subnet and visa versa.  Found that if I enabled WINS on the 10.59.0 systems, I could then address the server by manually entering servername i.e. \\servername\sharename.  Believe there are issues of getting to SQL databased from a wireless workstation as this week had to connect a wireless laptop via ethernet to setup an application using a SQL database.  There was a…
How can you prevent a malicious actor from repeatedly locking your AD account simply by entering a wrong password three times on the company VPN webpage?
We have total 7 scope configured in DHCP out of which 3 is showing blue exclamatory mark, when I click on display statistics for these 3 scopes all value is showing zero only. Event logs showing error messages like "DHCP client request from C42F909FAB66 was dropped since the applicable IP address ranges in scope/superscope VLAN40 are out of available IP addresses. This could be because of IP address ranges of a policy being out of available IP addresses." for all these 3 scopes only. However all these scopes are not more that 50% occupied.

DHCP lease is 10 hours for all scopes except scope for mobile user.

In DHCP properties DNS Tab
""Dynamically update DNS record only if requested by the DHCP clients"" is checked.
""Discard A and PTR records when lease is deleted"" is also checked.

Assign IP addresses dynamically to clients of: is DHCP

In DNS Scavenge stale resource records are set as No-refresh interval 3 days and Refresh interval 4 days for all the zones and scavenging Period is 1 Day.

I performed the reconciliation and restarted the DHCP services in both DC and is ADC. Also I checked by restarting our ADC as it was also showing the same thing but it also doesn't work however I have not cheeked  by restarting our DC yet.

Please suggest if anyone having the solution for this.
Can you recommend an ISP for our small remote Sales office at New York City? We need 10-20M bandwidth with a backup line. The ideal ISP can provide a separate backup line -- meaning once the main line is failed the WAN connection would switch straight over to this backup line. And the backup line is included in the cost of main line.
How to restore back the delete shared Mallbox by powershell.

I would like to know if it is possible to effectively use voip with private vlan edges, and how.

I have private vlan edges configured, essentially with the switchport protected, switchport block unicast and switchport block multicast, on all my user's workstation ports on the distribution switches. This is to prevent lateral movement in case of compromise. I would like to configure the ports for VoIP in the usual chained jack-to-phone-to-computer format. These catalyst switches are connected to the core catalyst switch via fiber.

I understand that all traffic on a switchport protected interface will be sent to the uplink and that this includes all voice and data traffic from that particular interface. But, I would prefer not to have to disable protected ports to allow phone to phone voice traffic.

Please help.

Can you please advise why IP of server is changing like

Pinging with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from Destination host unreachable.
Reply from Destination host unreachable.

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Multiple sites need to share data with file locking.  (this rules out DFS)
We currently use Globalscape WAFS, but the product is EOL.

I am looking for a solution to mirror my data in near real time (depends on speed of wan links) and maintain file locks remotely.
Ideally, the solution would NOT use SMB for data transfers as the chatty protocol doesn't do well on our 30ms latency wan links.
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We currently have two Nexus 93180YC-EX and two Nexus N2K-C2248TP-E-1GE in our environment. From all the articles that I've read so far, the Nexus 9K will only support topology 1, but doesn't support topology 2 (see attachments), is that correct? Any input will be greatly appreciated.
Dear Experts, I'm testing this network diagram with EVE-NG

Without the NAT translation and access-list, all 3 VLAN PCs can ping to, SLA also work OK to switch from default route to backup route.

With the NAT and access-list, PCs from VLAN11 and 12 could not ping although I allowed icmp on R1's interface. The PC on VLAN13 (not it NAT and access-list still could ping to How can I fix it with NAT and access-list?

I attached the configuration files.

I would like to route my voice traffic via separate IPVPN  link to the edge switch from my core switch.

What would the best strategy ?

As you can see from the attached diagram, site2 communicates with site1 via the pt-to-pt link as the primary. The MPLS is the backup link.

To get to the public server, site2 is going through site1. core1 redistribute static via EIGRP. and site2 learns the DG via EIGRP.

What I'd like to do is to reroute the DG  of site2 to FW2 when or fails. How would I go by accomplish this? Thanks

configuring vlans on HP 5406zl
I'd appreciate some advice on configuring a data and voice vlan on a HP 5406zl, the current config is attached.
currently the whole switch is configured on the default vlan, however I want to add a voice vlan for a up coming voip phone system replacing the old analogue pabx.
the goal is to connect the pc's through the phones, phones on Vlan30 and Data on Vlan1.
I have added the vlan30 , however in need of some advice on the tagging and untagging of ports and the routing to enable the vlans to communicate with each other.
this switch also acts as the core switch and has IP routing enabled, it has 6 poe modules (ports A1- F24)
A1 to F22require both vlans , F23/F24 will be used to connect to switches on another floor and need to pass both vlans through. F17 is the link to the FW
appreciate some guidance on this as HP is not mother tongue, when switching.
The goal is to connect the Main & Seed Office That have a city street and a railroad between them.  via the point to point wireless to be able to share the higher speed
Of the Charter cable along with giving the Seed office access to the NAS.
But I need to have a failsafe if the wireless goes down for any reason that the Main office
Would not lose their internet connection all together. Just fall back to the 10 m Fiber
What do you think the best route would be for this setup.
Running  any cable from the feed mill to the seed office is not an option with the railroad tracks
And a city street in the way.
Thanks in advance.
Good afternoon All

I am looking for community help to get me started on a Dell PowerConnect X4012 (2switch stack) configuration for 3 Dell XC servers with Nutanix on them.  I also have a TOR switch stack of 2 x Dell 3024 switches.  I have found in the past best practice documents for configuring Dell kit for VMware but I can't find anything conclusive for the above.

What vlans am I going to require for Nutanix AHV HCI?  

Any help gratefully received.

Hi all, looking for some assistance with a SQL cluster issue, would appreciate any assistance available.
xxxSQL07 is the name of the SQL cluster (windows cluster name xxxSQLCLU02) made up of two nodes; xxxsql03 and xxxsql04.
All works, able to connect using SQL studio using Windows Authentication (tried multiple accounts, including the service account that all SQL runs on on this domain).
The problem has presented itself as we've recently created a reporting server (xxxrpt02). The local publication has been configured linking to the only database on xxxSQL07 and wizard completed with no errors. From SQL studio on xxxRPT02, when trying to add a local subscription I receive the error message, "The target principle name is incorrect. Cannot generate SSPI context. (Microsoft SQL Server)". I've tested the reporting server by connecting to a local subscription on another SQL cluster which works, I also tested the faulty domain cluster from the other working reporting server and received the same error.
This error occurs whenever I try to connect SQL studio to this SQL cluster. I've also tried connecting to the name of the windows cluster but that didn't work.
In an attempt to fix this issue I took the xxxSQLCLU02 offline from failover manager and performed a repair in an attempt to get this connecting in to Active Directory correctly.
The SQL cluster name is pinging and the IP is resolving when pinging -a.

I've done some digging around and am erring toward this issue being…
I have 3 WS-C3550-48-SMI and they are connected to each other via 1000BaseCX Gigastack. But they are only half-duplex. My users are experiencing slow response. Could it be because of those trunks with half-duplex?

sh int status
Port      Name                      Status           Vlan       Duplex      Speed      Type
Gi0/1     Switch A & C       connected    trunk      a-half        a-1000      1000BaseCX Gigastack
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Cloud Class® Course: Microsoft Office 2010

This course will introduce you to the interfaces and features of Microsoft Office 2010 Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, and Access. You will learn about the features that are shared between all products in the Office suite, as well as the new features that are product specific.

Hi we have a thousand of switches in the network. and Orion has been configured on each switches. Now we have a few of commands that need to be implemented on each of switches. How can we add these commands to each switches via Orion? Or you can send me a link for this issue. Thank you
I hope I can get some inputs from you on network design.
This electronics manufacturing company will be building a 2 storey, 100K square foot facility.
The mail floor - all the manufacturing machines, computers and servers running manufacturing software
The 2nd floor - the main server (Microsoft SBS), SharePoint Server, LOB software servers, and computers used by office staff and engineers.  

They have less than 200 employees, over 120 computers, 5 physical servers, some VoIP phones. They are all on the same network. Currently, there are only 28 IP free addresses available from the DHCP server (Microsoft SBS)

Here are my thoughts about the network in the new building
1. Install stackable switches in each floor's server room. Connect the two groups of switches via a long high speed trunk cable running thru the floor.
I think this will keep the network traffic on the main floor in the main floor network from the 2nd floor network, which optimize the bandwidth.
Currently, they are using D-Link DGS-1510-52 switches, which have been quite reliable, except that i had to power cycle one of them twice in the past years, and their firmware are a bit buggy.

Is it worth to deploy Cisco switches which are more expensive and cause a learning curve? Is there such a long high speed trunk cable at all?

2. Separate computer network, VoIP phone network and Security/Access Control network with 3 different networks.
This will release quite some IP addresses from the DHCP …
Hi Guys,

 I am trying to use hyper-v extended port acl's as a basic form of firewalling for vms on hyper-v server 2016

My goal is simply to limit incoming connections while generally allowing outgoing traffic (and return traffic).

In essence we are allowing incoming http(s) and dns replies. All outgoing tcp traffic is marked as stateful.

We use the following acl's (cleaned up slightly for readability)
Add-VMNetworkAdapterExtendedAcl -VMName "web" -Action "Deny" -Direction "Inbound" -Weight 20
Add-VMNetworkAdapterExtendedAcl -VMName "web" -Action "Allow" -Direction "Inbound" -Weight 30 -Protocol 1
Add-VMNetworkAdapterExtendedAcl -VMName "web" -Action "Allow" -Direction "Inbound" -LocalPort 80  -Protocol "TCP" -Weight 60
Add-VMNetworkAdapterExtendedAcl -VMName "web" -Action "Allow" -Direction "Inbound" -LocalPort 443  -Protocol "TCP" -Weight 70
Add-VMNetworkAdapterExtendedAcl -VMName "web" -Action "Allow" -Direction "Inbound" -RemoteIPAddress "" -RemotePort "53" -Weight 130
Add-VMNetworkAdapterExtendedAcl -VMName "web" -Action "Allow" -Direction "Outbound" -Protocol "TCP" -Stateful $True -Weight 150

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The issue is as soon as the last stateful entry is added significant latency is observed to the point of things becoming useless.

In the cisco switch acl world you would simply look for the established flag for the packet.

Is there a way we can achieve the same here without incurring these severe performance penalties? Am I doing it completely wrong?

thanks for any insight.
Is Message Passing Broker system and Message Queuing Broker system the same? I am referring to Amazon Simple Queue Service. Can it be referred to as Message Passing Broker system?

Please share any case studies link.
Why I can only get a complete traceroute on my PC to the remote server and not from my access switch to the server. I can ping without any problem.

traceroute from my PC at the main site to the remote server via MPLS:

Tracing route to over a maximum of 30 hops

  1     2 ms     2 ms     2 ms
  2    <1 ms    <1 ms    <1 ms
  3    <1 ms    <1 ms    <1 ms
  4    20 ms    15 ms    19 ms
  5    15 ms    15 ms    15 ms
  6    39 ms    36 ms    32 ms

traceroute from my L3 switch at the main site to the remote server via MPLS:

L3-sw# traceroute
traceroute to (, 30 hops max, 40 byte packets
 1 (  0.789 ms  0.793 ms  0.65 ms
 2 (  5.014 ms  5.063 ms  11.98 ms
 3 (  21.506 ms  15.497 ms  15.627 ms
 4  * * *
 5  * * *
 6  * * *
 7  * * *
Dear Experts, please help us this case:

We are using Cisco Router 3925 as the gateway for LAN users, users' IP addresses were NAT overload via the interface that connect to the ISP; however we got a network ( that could not access a website.

If we NAT static a PC inside that network to a static public IP address (or a pool of public addresses), the PC could access the website; but if we did not NAT static and using NAT overload via gateway interface, PC could not access website.

Do you know why? Please suggest

Network Architecture





Network design and methodology, also known as network architecture, is the design of a communication network. It is a framework for the specification of a network's physical components and their functional organization and configuration, its operational principles and procedures, as well as data formats used in its operation. In telecommunication, the specification of a network architecture may also include a detailed description of products and services delivered via a communications network, as well as detailed rate and billing structures under which services are compensated.