Networking Hardware-Other





Networking hardware includes the physical devices facilitating the use of a computer network. Typically, networking hardware includes gateways, routers, network bridges, modems, wireless access points, networking cables, line drivers, switches, hubs, and repeaters. But it also includes hybrid network devices such as multilayer switches, protocol converters, bridge routers, proxy servers, firewalls, network address translators, multiplexers, network interface controllers, wireless network interface controllers, ISDN terminal adapters and other related hardware.

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Have a Cisco router that you forgot the password or maybe you bought a used router that is locked with a password? This article will guide you through the steps on how to recover the password on your Cisco gear.
This article will show how Aten was able to supply easy management and control for Artear's video walls and wide range display configurations of their newsroom.
Arrow Electronics was searching for a KVM (Keyboard/Video/Mouse) switch that could display on one single monitor the current status of all units being tested on the rack.
ADCs have gained traction within the last decade, largely due to increased demand for legacy load balancing appliances to handle more advanced application delivery requirements and improve application performance.
#Citrix #Netscaler #MSSQL #Load Balance
#Citrix #Citrix Netscaler #HTTP Compression #Load Balance
LVL 13

Expert Comment

by:Senior IT System Engineer
Hi Brian,

Does this guide works for Citrix NetScaler VPX for ESX 11.0 Build 64.34 appliance as well ?
LVL 16

Author Comment

by:Brian Murphy
Yes.  VPX.

With that said, be conscious of the throughput.  Regardless of model HTTP Compression is
Up to 0.75 Gbps for all VPX models

Every server (virtual or physical) needs a console: and the console can be provided through hardware directly connected, software for remote connections, local connections, through a KVM, etc.

This document explains the different types of consoles, their advantages and disadvantages.
LVL 12

Expert Comment

Marked as Good article, nice to have all the vendor information in one place.

I would add that the IBM Flex System Manager (FSM) is now being phased out and being replaced with the Lenovo XClarity virtual appliance.  Any existing FSM customers are entitled to the XClarity upgrade.
LVL 11

Author Comment

by:Carlos Ijalba
Thanks DLeaver,

And thank you for the info regarding FSM, it's good to know and a great addition to the article.
Before I go to far, let's explain HA (High Availability) and why you should consider it.  High availability is the mechanism used to provide redundancy to any service at the same site and appears as a single service to the users of that service.  As opposed to DR (Disaster Recovery) which provides a mechanism used to provide redundancy to any service at disparate sites and are mirrors of the same services.  HA is needed incase of component failure.  In the case of this article, we are looking at a netscaler failure, an uplink failure the netscaler depends on, a hard drive failure, or any other failure that may make a netscaler inoperable.  In this case, having a HA pair a second netscaler that stands "idle" will detect that its peer has failed and take over the load balancing duties automatically.  By doing this, it ensures higher availability to the users (hence the HA name) and minimizes impact.  In turn it gives you as the admin breathing room to repair the inoperable node without everyone on you to get services working again.  I hope this explains, although briefly, what HA is and why using HA with a netscaler would be beneficial to you.

When setting up a netscaler HA pair, there are a few things to consider:

1) you don't have to have the devices directly linked to one another like some devices might need to be for HA to work
2) hardware platforms must be identical.  Meaning you can't have a Netscaler 22500 and a 11500 be peers
3) It is not 100% necessary to have …
LVL 25

Author Comment

yes, I've done this many times before.  Other than what is on edocs I have ZERO images.  I have configs (of which I'm not allowed to share), that's it.  This article was not even proofread, this was purely from memory.  I'm sure others have more time which is why they can do images as well.  this article writing actually constituted about 90-95% of my available time I could dedicate to EE this month.  I just don't have time.  If you are wanting to be a stickler about images though, that is fine.  I will stop writing articles.
Imagine you have a shopping list of items you need to get at the grocery store. You have two options:
A. Take one trip to the grocery store and get everything you need for the week, or
B. Take multiple trips, buying an item at a time, to achieve the same feat.
Obviously, unless you are purposefully trying to get out of the house you’d choose “A”. But why do we so often times choose “B” when it comes to our data transmission performance? The key metric here is efficiency.How many trips do you want to take?

MTU…says you need to buy Milk in 1 Gallon containers rather than by the ounce!

MTU is an acronym that stands for the Maximum Transmission Unit, which is the single largest physical packet size, measured in bytes, a network can transmit. If messages are larger than the specified MTU they are broken up into separate, smaller packets also known as packet fragmentation or “fragmented”, which slows the overall transmission speeds because instead of making one trip to the grocery store you are now making multiple trips to achieve the same feat. In other words, the maximum length of a data unit a protocol can send in one trip, without fragmentation occurring is dictated by the MTU value defined.

Do I Really need to Manually Correct the MTU Value?

The correct MTU value will help you select the correct shopping cart size in order to be the most efficient in your grocery shopping so that you don’t have to take multiple trips. Shouldn’t I just leave…

Expert Comment

by:Jason Shaw
Would changing the MTU on on-side of VPN tunnel cause any issues with VPN ?
LVL 32

Author Comment

by:Blue Street Tech
Hi Jason, I assume you are only changing it on one side of a VPN tunnel. If I am correct, then it would only benefit one side of the connection. So if that connection is having the issues then it may remedy the problem, however for greater efficacy I'd do both ends (they most likely will not have the same MTU).
Hi there,

This article summarizes what you need if you are going to set up your home or small business Network Attached Storage (NAS) to be accessible from the internet. Of course there are configuration differences based on your NAS or router manufacturer/model, but I will try to write this tutorial in general terms so it should cover the basics whatever hardware you have.

I will discuss these steps here:
1. set static IP for NAS
2. make NAS accessible outside of LAN

In most cases, NAS should connected directly to your router. Most NAS manufacturers provide their own software for initial NAS configuration (set IP etc.) so you, as an user, are able to login into the NAS and do further configuration that you need (create folders, users, give permissions, etc.). I do not want to cover this part because it really varies from NAS to NAS. If you are running DHCP on your router it may be that your NAS will have different IP in the future which can make it inaccessible for clients. That´s why I recommend that you set a static IP address for NAS. But do not do this by setting a static IP on NAS because if you will use an IP from your DHCP pool range you risk IP conflict with another device in your LAN. You may argue that if you use an IP out of your DHCP pool range you are safe. Partially yes, because you will not conflict with DHCP, but you are loosing track of IPs you set in that way (if you will have more devices set like that you simply have to have some excel document…
Hello All,

I have been training on Multicast for a while now and whenever I start the topic , I find out that my friends /  Colleagues mention that they do not know how to test Multicast Joins. As most of the multicast would be video traffic and they should technically have a whole slew of setup to send and receive some video traffic.

Simple way to do it in a Cisco router is as follows. This applies for all the multicast modes

1. Sparse Mode
2. Dense Mode
3. Sparse-Dense Mode

The below is the topology that I will be using, Please note for the article sake to be more productive , I have chosen emulation with GNS3 itself.


R1 will be the multicast server, R4 will be the multicast receiver.

What has been assumed in this simulation is :

1. There is an IGP , in this case EIGRP running between r1,r5 and r5
2. There is Pim dense mode (any mode of your choice) running and devices are pim adj

Now, on the server end, in order to generate traffic, a simple Ping can be used as follows:

r1#ping repeat 100

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 100, 100-byte ICMP Echos to, timeout is 2 seconds:

Open in new window

You you will see, the pings are failing, because there isn't a host who wants to receive this traffic. So, how do I make R4 as the host ? Now, by using the below command on any interface of R4 , I will use fa0/1

r4(config)#int fa0/1
r4(config-if)#ip igmp join-group

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As soon as I do that, I try the ping again, and can now see the response below on R1 again

Open in new window


Expert Comment

by:Steve Martin
I know this was created quite some time ago but thank you! Currently working on testing a configuration that we will be deploying into a live environment with several intricate variables and this allowed me to generate the multicast needed to ensure proper packet flows. Thanks!
When posting a question about a Cisco ASA, Cisco Router or Cisco Switch, it can aid diagnosis if a suitably sanitised copy of the config is provided. It is much better to leave as much of the configuration as original as possible, as it could be that there is an error that you have not seen that is "corrected" by a change that you make to it in order to sanitise it. To aid intelligibility any changes to the config to sanitise it should be consistent throughout the config.

This tutorial is attempting to be as generic as possible across the many flavours and release levels of CatOS, IOS and PIX/ASA. If you are unsure about whether something should be replaced/redacted in the configuration then apply the question of "does it contain any information that is specific to the device/site/installation" is usually a good arbiter.

There are parts of the config that should be replaced and there are areas that should be redacted, unless your question is about the format or syntax in which case this might be the only part of the config that is required.

It is much better to mark something as redacted rather than just remove it, this is so that an Expert reading through the config will not be distracted by what appears to be a missing or syntactically incorect part of the config. To mark someing as redacted, it is better to do something in the form of <redacted LDAP bind> than just <redacted>. The exact form is not important, but it should be consistent throughout the config.

LVL 38

Expert Comment

"Yes" vote above.

Great advice. I sometimes shudder when reading the information publicly posted here and in other forums. Good move on creating this article.

Expert Comment

Good One ArneLovius..
This article is a how to to configure a UCS Ethernet-uplink portchannel via
the console.

It is easy to do and can be done quite quickly. In certain versions of the UCS manager the portchannel has issues coming up and this is a workaround.
I am no Cisco wizard but this makes it pretty straight forwards to create the portchannel.

1) SSH to your UCS manager using your console admin and password credentials.
2) type "scope eth-uplink"
3) type "scope fabric A" (or B) depending on which Fabric Interconnect you are adding the portchannel too.
4) type "sho port-channel" to list any portchannels that you have already made so you do not overlap the portchannel ID's
5) type " create port-channel <new portchannel ID number that you set>"                       I would make it match your network gear
6) type this for each adapter you want to add "create member-port <module #>  <port number>" then type "exit" to back you up to the port-channel scope.

IE   create member-port 1 5 <press enter>
       exit   <press enter>
      create member-port 1 6 <press enter>
       exit   <press enter>
7) type "disable"
8) type "commit-buffer" <-- this writes the config changes and keeps the adapter in a disabled state.
9) once you are ready on your network switch and your config matches on both ends you can enable the portchannel by doing this -  
type "enable" <enter> then "commit-buffer" and enable your portchannel on the switch

If you go to the UCS manager you will see …
LVL 15

Administrative Comment

by:Eric AKA Netminder
Congratulations! Your article has been published.

Page Editor
This article will step through configuring a SonicWALL appliance to utilize an internal DHCP server for Global VPN Client (GVC) hosts.  There are times when using an external (external to the SonicWALL) DHCP server, such as Windows Servers, isn’t practical for one reason or another.

This article assumes the WAN GlobalVPN VPN policy has already been configured and is functioning.  Additionally, this article is in two parts:

Part One will use an already configured WLAN zone for assigning IP addresses to GVC hosts.
Part Two will walk through setting up the WLAN zone if not already configured.

Part One – Setup DHCP for GVC Hosts Utilizing The WLAN Zone

NOTE: It is assumed that WLAN already has access to LAN and LAN to WLAN.

What you’ll need to know:
- The IP address assigned to the interface the WLAN zone is assigned to.

1. Login to the SonicWALL appliance and go to VPN > DHCP over VPN.

2. Confirm Central Gateway is selected in the drop down and click Configure (See Image 1 Below).

3. Check the following boxes:
    - Use Internal DHCP Server
    - For Global VPN Client

4. In the Relay IP Address text box, type the IP address assigned to the interface the WLAN zone is assigned to.  See Image 2 below for the final settings.  Once the settings are completed, click OK.

5. Once completed, establish a VPN connection and confirm the IP address is assigned from the DHCP scope assigned to the WLAN zone.

LVL 13

Expert Comment

The LAN subnet is good old  I can honestly blame a previous admin for that.

The fabricated X5 subnet is  The X5 Interface is  DHCP Scope for that is thru .99.

If I change the "DHCP over VPN" properties so the client obtains an IP from our LAN DHCP server, everything is fine.  But the whole point of this exercise is to get the VPN clients off the pesky subnet.

Perhaps interestingly, I have a different DHCP scope for L2TP Pool.  If the client connects from some standard L2TP VPN client, it works fine.

I may have to post this as a new question...  It seems like I'm very close to getting this to work but some small detail isn't right yet.
LVL 33

Author Comment

Let me know if you do. I've been on a EE vacation as I've had some life changes, new baby, that has left me too busy for EE. I don't get updates on new questions at the moment.
Do you have a computer or other electronic gear that is attached to a rat nest of cables, or alternatively have your cables all bundled nice at neat?  If so then read this post to sidstep common pitfalls.

When I was a student at DeVry University, many years ago, I had a professor who taught me a bit about data communications.  Throughout the past 20 years I have picked up other tidbits of information that is rarely important to an end user of computers and data communications equipment.  As of late I have had the need to draw on those obscure and usually irrelevant teachings to solve a couple of technical issues for my clients.

Issue:  Recently I installed a 100MB ethernet switch at a customer’s business site (replaced a 10MB switch) and found that all computers except one would successfully negotiate a connection.  I tried several different network configuration scenarios on the computer failing the 100MB negotiation.  Manually setting the network card on the computer to 10MB successfully resolved the issue; however I was not satisfied that this was a reasonable solution to permanently fix the issue.

Solution:  I found that the customer had an unusually long network patch cable running from the computer to the wall jack.  In an effort to clean up the cabling in her office my customer had coiled up the excess length of cable and bound it up with a rubber band.  The coiled cable was causing attenuation to deteriorate the signal strength.  Simply uncoiling the network…
 One of the main issues with network wires is that you never have enough.  You run plenty and plan for the worst case but you still end up needing more.  What many people do not realize is with 10BaseT and 100BaseT (but not 1000BaseT) networks you can double your network size by splitting the network wires.

  No matter what standard you are using (A or B) on 10/100 networks only pins 1, 2, 3 and 6 are used.  The most used standard is B so this means that only orange/white (PIN 1), orange (pin 2), green/white (pin 3) and green (pin 6) are used.  This leaves you with 4 extra wires.  Now this is only true if you are not using Power Over Ethernet (POE).  POE uses the other wires to provide a low voltage power to end user devices such as phones, wireless access points and cameras.  This however can also be overcome as discussed later in this article.

  The simplest way to do this is to purchase a CAT 5 splitter.  These are readily available on the internet. The best part is that are inexpensive now and they are plug and play.  Most companies label them with letters or to identify what you have connected on each end.  The only downside is you end up with this ugly box hanging on the outside of your wall.  The up sides are speed and the ugly box lets you know it has been split.  You can find these from most major cable manufacturers for anywhere from $8-15 dollars.

  If you are a handyman you can make this yourself and save a bit of money and …

Expert Comment

WOW! I can't believe that this actually got posted on EE!

I worked at a medical clinic, where the IT guy had done this to connect an extra PC in 4 different offices. I was totally shocked, when I saw this. I thought that it was the dumbest thing that I had ever seen! The craziest part about it. It actually worked, or so it seemed. It worked just like running a 375' cat 5e cable between two buildings to provide Internet access for two PCs.

My understanding of the electrical nature of this connection is that the two unused pairs help with eliminating or reducing noise on the data pairs. If you add another communication signal, then you are effectively adding noise into the circuit. Not on just one data communication link, but two.

There is already the possibility of crosstalk between the positive and negative pairs. Think NEXT and FEXT! Near End Cross Talk and Far End Cross Talk for those unfamiliar with the terms.

The addition of another communication signal just exacerbates the problem. Not only do you have to worry about NEXT and FEXT, but the noise (EMI) generated by the additional current flow.

Sure it may work, though the throughput may not be ideal. Due to the addition of noise and EMI the signal and therefore the data is bound to become corrupted. This will result in retransmission of packets by TCP.

So where is the benefit? Just run another cat 5e cable. Do it right!!!
LVL 29

Expert Comment

by:Brian B
Glad you clarified about the fact it only works on 10 or 100. I would put this in a big bold disclaimer at the beginning because most equipment nowadays is gigabit and the type of end-user who might try something like this probably wouldn't know the difference. I would never split wires in this way for the reasons already explained above. Interference could cause all sorts of unknown problems that an end-user would have trouble identifying. Either run another cable, or use wireless before splitting cables.
If you’re like me and you like peace and quiet, saving money, and pretty lights, then this article is for you.

For financial reasons, I buy all the Cisco equipment for my home lab second-hand. The first thing to wear out is usually one of the cooling fans, so I often receive a unit with either dead fans or ones that have one blade in the grave. (Get it? Fan blade? …haha)

Replacement fans for Cisco routers and switches are usually priced around $50 by most resellers – I don’t even want to know what Cisco would sell them for. This becomes a huge problem if your device has 4 or 5 fans and you don’t have a large corporate budget backing you up.

What they don’t want you to know is that you can actually use any cooling fan to do the job. The only thing “special” about the ones branded for Cisco is that the pins are in a different configuration. Fortunately, with a little trial and error, this is something we can fix.

Now, before you consider replacing your fans, remember that the original ones do push a great deal of air for such small fans (most Cisco fans are 40 x 20 mm), but they have to or else the device would overheat under a full network load. Of course, this also means they are very loud. Consider this when you buy your fans – if you have a larger network putting your device under heavy use, you may need to spend $20 on each, but if your purpose is mainly a lab setup like me, a $5 fan will do nicely. Alternatively, if you’re looking at a device with dying fans …
Broadband over Power Lines

Broadband over Power Lines is the technology of transmitting computer data through power lines. This method of connectivity allows the user to have access to the internet without having to rely on additional cables, such as phone lines, while only having to use a special BPL modem to simply plug directly into an AC outlet.

The traffic speed offered through this method of connectivity rivals that of DSL and Cable, and may be capable of surpassing both methods of Internet connectivity. Data traffic and applications can be transported at speeds ranging from 4Mbps to 145Mbps. In order to provide broadband connectivity, BPL uses RF (radio waves) to carry the data over the power lines.

Although potential interference remains a pertinent issue, the overall benefits afforded by adopting BPL deserves a balanced evaluation and cooperation between industry and government bodies, namely the FCC. In-building BPL can be used to interconnect PCs or other devices within a building, using that building's electrical wiring. Access BPL extends that connection to the Internet, using electrical distribution wiring.

- Excellent for high bandwidth media, running a web server, or gaming
- Numerous business applications; for instance, benefiting the actual utility companies in terms of integrating smart networks in order to
determine locations of power outages, and perform automated meter reading

- Internet …

Expert Comment

BPL (Broadband over power line )  from Google \ hyperlink
SSL, VPN end user faster for enterprises best.  For personal home , DSL basic plan by ISP  the modern ,  wireless/wire/ router  online multiple-functions , ISP & Microsoft have the whatsoever authority to control client apply in any reason ?

Am having wire_100M_isp.account , why the dual Ethernet detected a wireless signal from mac.wireless  ?   Where accessed by "other device " ?
In this tutorial I will show you with short command examples how to obtain a packet footprint of all traffic flowing thru your Juniper device running ScreenOS. I do not know the exact firmware requirement, but I think the fprofile command is available starting with 6.0.

The profiling is only available in CLI, so you need to know how to get there by a serial attached terminal emulation, or telnet / ssh. This is not covered here.

General CLI tip
At all times, you can type unique starting parts of the commands:
get fpro pac stop

Open in new window

and if you can't remember the syntax, just put a question mark after your command to get further help:
get fpro pac ?

Open in new window

or press [Tab] for auto-complete and help

How to

1. Preparation of profiling

The preparation can be done at any time, and needs not to be changed once set up.
unset fprofile packet wrap
set fprofile packet enable
set fprofile packet count 16

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The count is measured in kilo-packets, allowed are 1-256

2. Start and stop profiling


clear fprofile
set fprofile packet start

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If you set up nowrap (like above), profiling ends automatically as soon as the packet count is reached. If you set wrap mode, the buffer used is overwritten until you issue a
set fprofile packet stop

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I've seen no CPU effect if you leave fprofile enabled (but stopped), however you can disable that to be safe:
unset fprofile packet enable

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After disabling fprofile, the collected profile data is not available anymore, even after reenabling.
If you want to check the actual state of the profiling enginge:
get fprofile

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shows state of fprofile: enabled and start or stop.

3. Viewing the profile

The following recovery method will work on All Cisco Switchs that run ISO software.

You will need a good copy of the IOS version you want you use saved on your PC and a Com's Cable.

The software for these switches comes as a .tar file. Tar is an old Unix file archive type - it actually stands for tape archive and was used for archiving things to tape. The .tar file contains the .bin image that the switch needs to boot, and some other stuff (for Cisco View Device Manager etc). When the switch is running normally, you'd use the command archive download-sw tftp:///me> - this command copies the .tar file over and extracts it onto the filesystem.
However when you're stuck in bootloader mode, there's no such command. So we need to do something different:

1. Use Winzip (or similar) to extract the .bin file from the .tar file on your computer.

2. Connect to the switch using Hyperterminal at 9600 baud, 8 N 1.

3. You should see a prompt that says switch:. This is the bootloader mode. If you don't see that, either you're booted up, and you don't need these instructions, your switch is properly broken, or you've got your terminal settings wrong. Try power-cycling the Catalyst while holding the Mode button on the front in to get the bootloader.

4. Now downloading the .bin file at 9600 baud is going to take a long time (about 2 hours), so we will change the baud rate of the console port temporarily. Enter the command set BAUD 1152003. After you…
LVL 16

Author Comment

by:Aaron Street
To tidy that up here is the full list of commands to issue at the ROMMON command line to copy a IOS from a TFTP server

copying the IOS using TFTP (only works on some routers with a more modem Boot Flash)

IP_ADDRESS=IP address of the Ethernet port

IP_SUBNET_MASK=subnet mask of the Ethernet port

DEFAULT_GATEWAY=the default gateway

TFTP_SERVER=the IP of the TFTP server (your local computer)

TFTP_FILE=the file name of the IOS file


Just make sure you have the TFTP server running on a pc and the required IOS ready to go.

This replaces steps 4 to 9 above.

Networking Hardware-Other





Networking hardware includes the physical devices facilitating the use of a computer network. Typically, networking hardware includes gateways, routers, network bridges, modems, wireless access points, networking cables, line drivers, switches, hubs, and repeaters. But it also includes hybrid network devices such as multilayer switches, protocol converters, bridge routers, proxy servers, firewalls, network address translators, multiplexers, network interface controllers, wireless network interface controllers, ISDN terminal adapters and other related hardware.