Networking Protocols

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Networking software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system that implements the networking functionality of the operating system. The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model. Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite.[9] Some of the best known protocol suites include: IPX/SPX, X.25, AX.25, AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Other protocols indirectly related to networking include the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and its related technologies, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name Server (DNS) and other Internet protocols.

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Which traffic will use the next hop in the PBR? The DENY traffic or PERMIT traffic under the ACL? I am pretty sure it means the PERMIT traffic will use the PBR but just want to double check


ip access-list extended PBR
 deny   ip 10.90.28.224 0.0.0.15 any
 deny   ip 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
 permit ip 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 any


route-map PBR permit 10
 match ip address PBR
 set ip next-hop 10.255.14.1

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We have Verizon FIOS triple play.  They supplied an actiontech modem router.  

The contract is ending and we are moving to Comcast internet only service.  Verizon wants just the TV boxes back - says I can keep the actiontech.

can we just plug in the coax from comcast into the actiontech and it'll work?  or is it set up / proprietary for Verizon service only?  (right now the actiontech is fed from the Verizon optical box with a cat 5 on the WAN port, but it has a coax connector also.)

Again, we're looking to use this for just the internet only service

Thanks!
0
I have cisco 3650 and 3560G connected one to one port as trunk. Ports are gig1/1/1 to g0/1

What is the recommended etherchannel configuration from port gig1/1/1, gig 1/1/2 to g0/1, g0/2?
0
We currently have a Dell Sonic Firewall that is our firewall as well as our company router.  This is our main router for all of our sites in the company.  We have 16.  We implemented through our EMR (Electronic Medical Records) software an upload to a billing company.  They in turn configure and print bills and send them out to our customers.  This has worked fine for over two years.  When this was implemented, we were not required to make any firewall changes at all.

A week ago, the user doing this procedure received an error that the file could not be uploaded.  She called the EMR company, who in their effort to troubleshoot the problem, changed the upload method from ftp to sftp.  She then tried to upload and she got an additional error that port 22 was unable to send.  Seeing that error, the EMR said that the problem has to do with our firewall.  I spoke with the billing company who tried to do a trace route to our external IP.  They were unsuccessful, but I was able to do a trace route to them.  The only caveat is that the user can do this procedure from home with no problem.

I am willing to make firewall changes if necessary, I just don't know what they would be or why it is necessary now, if no one has made any changes other than the upload method from ftp to sftp.

Please help.  I am desperate.
0
IS-IS router summarization can only be done on L1/L2 router is this correct.
There is now other place to do route summarization.
0
Hello all,

I have some Win 2012 3cx v15 phone systems and was having trouble with apple push notifications for calls to remote devices.  I've determined it to be a TLS issue.  I had used IIS Crypto to remove the less secure SSL 3.0, TLS 1.0 and 1.1, leaving just TLS 1.2 and more secure ciphers.  This breaks apple push notifications from the 3cx server/software.  I put back TLS 1.1, no luck.  Put back TLS 1.0, now push notifications work.  I find it odd that I should still need 1.0 enabled on the server.  

Is apple push still using that protocol and not 1.1 or 1.2, or might there be something else going on here.

I'm by no means familiar with protocols/ciphers, just determined what fixes the problem.
0
How to scan a network for running services?
In this brief tutorial Pawel from AdRem Software explains how you can quickly find out which services are running on your network, or what are the IP addresses of servers responsible for each service. Software used is freeware NetCrunch Tools.
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I have a very simple exports files

/chroots   cati.vm.domain.com(rw,sync)
/chroots/talex/myhome web.vm.domain.com(rw,sync)


The first one has been there and works fine - the second one, I can't get to work... not sure if it's because I the second export is a subdir of the first?.... but when I try to mount it on the client, it just hangs and never completes.

Here is the fstab config I am using

192.168.1.29:/chroots/talex/myhome  /mnt/talexftp  nfs  _netdev,soft  0  0

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any ideas?
0
Hello, I have Windows 10 and Windows 7 systems  in a SBS2011 domain environment and at least once a day the windows explorer freezes and I have to reboot. After selecting reboot it hangs at reboot mode. I have to force it to shutdown and and start it again for it to work.  Most of the time windows explorer does not work and also internet access goes away too. I even can not access the C-Drive and the Network Drives. Nothing at all.  I have Symantec Endpoint and Malware Byte endpoint protection installed on these systems. Please help.

Thank you
0
Why would I be getting these errors on my logs. I am running DMVPN.
 dest_addr 4.5.6.7, SPI 0x8e584d60
000058: May 15 09:18:21: %IOSXE-3-PLATFORM: SIP0: cpp_cp: QFP:0.0 Thread:000 TS:00000309438262163039 %IPSEC-3-REPLAY_ERROR: IPSec SA receives anti-replay error, DP Handle 3, src_addr 1.2.3.4 dest_addr 4.5.6.7, SPI 0x8d670b5e
000059: May 15 09:19:53: %IOSXE-3-PLATFORM: SIP0: cpp_cp: QFP:0.0 Thread:000 TS:00000309529825315373 %IPSEC-3-REPLAY_ERROR: IPSec SA receives anti-replay error, DP Handle 3, src_addr 1.2.3.4 dest_addr 4.5.6.7, SPI 0x8d670b5e
000060: May 15 09:39:13: %IOSXE-3-PLATFORM: SIP0: cpp_cp: QFP:0.0 Thread:000 TS:00000310690125718495 %IPSEC-3-REPLAY_ERROR: IPSec SA receives anti-replay error, DP Handle 3, src_addr 1.2.3.4 dest_addr 4.5.6.7, SPI 0x8d670b5e
000061: May 15 09:50:40: %IOSXE-3-PLATFORM: SIP0: cpp_cp: QFP:0.0 Thread:000 TS:00000311376506767405 %IPSEC-3-REPLAY_ERROR: IPSec SA receives anti-replay error, DP Handle 3, src_addr 1.2.3.4 dest_addr 4.5.6.7, SPI 0x8d670b5e
000062: May 15 09:52:37: %IOSXE-3-PLATFORM: SIP0: cpp_cp: QFP:0.0 Thread:000 TS:00000311493607193615 %IPSEC-3-REPLAY_ERROR: IPSec SA receives anti-replay error, DP Handle 3, src_addr 1.2.3.4 dest_addr 4.5.6.7, SPI 0x8d670b5e
000063: May 15 09:53:38: %IOSXE-3-PLATFORM: SIP0: cpp_cp: QFP:0.0 Thread:000 TS:00000311554565979494 %IPSEC-3-REPLAY_ERROR: IPSec SA receives anti-replay error, DP Handle 3, src_addr 1.2.3.4 dest_addr 4.5.6.7, SPI 0x8d670b5e
000064: May 15 09:58:38: 

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Visualize your virtual and backup environments
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Visualize your virtual and backup environments

Create well-organized and polished visualizations of your virtual and backup environments when planning VMware vSphere, Microsoft Hyper-V or Veeam deployments. It helps you to gain better visibility and valuable business insights.

Hi All, need some EE advice!

Scenario first, then question after. Please read through - although it may appear to be, this is not a printing question, it is a DNS setting question for assigning primary DNS domains on the VPN connection/ certificate.

Scenario:
I manage a VPN connection with a .pcf. connecting to a Cisco 5510 ASA
Users in a non-connected, non-trusted network on Domain B access a RDS on Domain A to run a particular application.
This access and use of the program is required all day as part of their job. It cannot be connected and disconnected frequently.
Static IPs are used for all connections via VPN.
I did not build the VPN connections but do have a little knowledge on modifying .PCF files etc. Configuring the Cisco 5510 ASA is not my strong suit.

- Connection path:
Users in Domain B Log onto their local PC with Domain B credentials.
They then launch Cisco VPN client v. 5.0.0.9 and log onto Domain A with Domain A credentials.
Next, they use a pre-configured RDP connection to RDP to the RDS in Domain A, using the same Domain A credentials.
Once on the RDS, TerminalWorks TS Print is used to print documents fro the application launched from the RDS.  
They have had ZERO problems for 2 years.

Problem:
- The IT guy at Domain B replaced the print server and purchased all new printers.
- Now, whenever these Users attempt to print it can take upwards to 20 minutes for the print dialogue to appear.
- Attempting to …
0
What physical communications ports and technical communications protocols do IP-Enabled UPS systems use to communicate with the network?
0
I have been trying to re establish a lost scanning connection with my Ricoh Aficio 2022 with my computer workstation.   No matter, SMB just failed for no reason.    I gave up.  it was working for years then just suddenly failed

So I installed filezilla.   Still does not work but i think I just do not have the correct syntax.

Filezilla server invoked for my computer.  192.168.1.xxx
The Ricoh then set up as follows

FTP
Port 21
Server 192.168.1.xxx (my workstation)  or \\servername    (tried both)
Path:    \folder    or  \sharename\folder
user:    username
password   password

None of this works.

I am missing one syntax call.  What is it?

The FTP connections work just fine on the LAN.       This is all LAN based.  I am not making any external WAN calls (yet)

Ports 21 and 22 forwarded to my 192.168.1.xxx computer

thank you
0
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6
I need to see the DNS resolution requests of my applications audited and if necessary modified before being sent. I suppose the easiest would be a local resolver that would review my requests before forwarding them to the resolver of my ISP? Another way would be to monitor and be able to override UDP/53 traffi (something I have no clue about). Is there an open source I could use?
Also, I would need this on all OS.
How would you do that? Or would there be a free solution that exists?
Need: support of iDNs as per RFC 5895 for the wole machine (transparent to applications), management of variants, parental control, typos correction. Etc.
Thank you!
0
Hi,

Bit of an odd one, I have set the correct NTP servers up on the config of a yealink T23G phone, having run a pcap I can see that it's dns queries to the NTP server are being refused. The phones are on a segmented VLAN network, as far as I know other handsets on different VLANs are not having this problem and there is nothing unique about how this is set up compared to others.

I have tried upgrading the firmware and different NTP time servers. This is affecting multiple handsets

The message I'm seeing a lot in the capture is that "The Server is not an authority for the domain"

I've attached a sample of the queries I'm seeing in the PCAP.

Any ideas guys?

Many thanks,
Tim
0
Hi !

Is there any way to force the HSRP election process ? I want to change the Standby router to become Active. I am changing the priority value but it s not falling over to the other device.
1
Hi All,
I have been at this all day to no avail.
I am using Yealink IP Phones. The customer now wants to run his laptops with the phones. So the PC's run through the phones.
The phones use their own gateway on port 1 and the PC's use their own on port 24.
In addition to VID 1 created VID 20 for the Data on all ports and Voice on VID 50 Voice as per this example I found.
Phones and PC's are on all the ports except 1 and 24.
AlI really want to do is give priority to the IP Phones.

[url="http://www.dlink.com/uk/en/support/faq/switches/layer-2-gigabit/dgs-series/es_dgs-1210_como-configurar-voice-vlan"]

The phones don't work and neither do the PC's when activated.
I have also setup the phones WAN port with VID 50 and the PC port with VID20.

Any help is welcome
I have not tried tagging P1 and P24 on all 3 the VLANS.  

Thanks
Ken
0
I can't seem to form PIM neighbors over a tunnel.  I have unicast reachability and added static mroutes for multicast traffic.  
We refreshed the spoke side, and the HUB remained up.  The spoke does not form a PIM relationship via the tunnel2, but the HUB still does.  Does the HUB side need to be torn down and built back up?  I read about clearing the mroutes, but not sure if I should do that?  

Hub

interface Tunnel2
 ip address 10.145.31.9 255.255.255.252
 ip pim sparse-dense-mode
 keepalive 3 3
 tunnel source Loopback0
 tunnel destination 10.76.15.130 (Loopback0 of Spoke)
end


Spoke

interface Tunnel2
 ip address 10.145.31.10 255.255.255.252
 ip pim sparse-dense-mode
 keepalive 3 3
 tunnel source Loopback0
 tunnel destination 10.50.70.32 (Loopback0 of Hub)
end

ip rp-address 10.1.1.5 (loopback1 of Hub)








Could it be an issue on how the tunnels are forming on the spoke?  Not sure if building two tunnels with the same IP is an issue.  

SPOKE#show ip int bri
Tunnel0                10.145.31.10     YES unset  up                    up      (PIM built)
Tunnel2                10.145.31.10       YES manual up                    up  (GRE)

SPOKE#Tunnel0
  Type       : PIM Encap
  RP         : 10.1.1.5
  Source     : 10.145.31.10
  State      : UP
  Last event : Created (00:10:35)



Just to add, the HUB is sending and receiving PIM Hellos, and the SPOKE is only sending them, but not receiving
0
What is SQL Server and how does it work?
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What is SQL Server and how does it work?

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when I view a pc's arp table after I change the ip address in an ip camera's firmware, it shows up in "arp - a" as a dynamic instead of static. All the cameras show up as dynamic, even though I set them all manually to my scheme. I wonder why?
0
Currently I have a website that forwards to another website using GoDaddy's "Domain Forwarding" option.  Example:
When someone goes to www.Site1.com, it forwards to an entirely different domain www.Site2.com

That works for EXTERNAL users.
I would like this to happen for internal users as well and I use Microsoft DNS internally.
Does Microsoft provide a way to accomplish this?

Thank you in advance!
0
update.microsoft.com

http://www.update.microsoft.com/windowsupdate

To the left is a subdomain whats on the right - correct ?
0
I am using the following query to get the CNAME record to load my site properly. The issue: The code below works ... but only if refreshed a couple of times.

Query ::

$recsDNS = dns_get_record($_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'], DNS_CNAME );
print_r($recsDNS);

Not getting CNAME records Properly, SOme times coming and some times Not.

If I use DNS_ALL :: After refreshing 3 to 4 times i am getting CNAME records.
0
I have cisco 3650FS-S as the main switch and I want to setup and configure cisco 3560G as a backup switch so if main switch fails, the secondary switch takes over with no impact? How to do this?
0
I have 2 routers connected to the same MPLS provider. I have the statement maximum-paths 2 under my BGP config. I'd like to know what will happen if I remove it.

router BGP 65001
...
address-family nsap
 maximum-paths 2
exit-address family

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Networking Protocols

11K

Solutions

15

Articles & Videos

16K

Contributors

Networking software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system that implements the networking functionality of the operating system. The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model. Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite.[9] Some of the best known protocol suites include: IPX/SPX, X.25, AX.25, AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Other protocols indirectly related to networking include the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and its related technologies, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name Server (DNS) and other Internet protocols.