Networking Protocols

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Networking software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system that implements the networking functionality of the operating system. The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model. Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite.[9] Some of the best known protocol suites include: IPX/SPX, X.25, AX.25, AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Other protocols indirectly related to networking include the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and its related technologies, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name Server (DNS) and other Internet protocols.

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We have a client who has just had installed a BTNet Leased line installed.
They have 8 static (5 usable) IP address on the line (/29 subnet) assigned. Lets say this is 122.122.122.0/29
We have configured the WAN1 of the Draytek with this range and configured the WAN IP address as 122.122.122.2, subnet 255.255.255.248 and its Gateway to point to 122.122.122.1

Connected a PC to the LAN1 and LAN2 Ports on the Draytek which allows us to access the Internet OK - All Works OK from LAN to WAN.

We are now trying to Port Forward specific ports (lets say 22 and 23 - SSH and Telnet) on the next useable IP address (122.122.122.3) through to a device on LAN2 which has been configured on a different LAN/Local Subnet (192.168.2.0/24). The device is on an IP address of 192.168.2.2, LAN2 IP on Draytek is 192.168.2.1

The Draytek can ping to the device with an IP of 192.168.2.2 but we cannot seem to get the NAT/Port forwarding to work correctly.

We have tried using One to One NAT for this solution along with a Firewall rule to allow WAN to LAN2 traffic for these ports. Logging (SYSLOG) is turned on for this rule but no traffic is ever reaching the firewall rule as no logs are produced.

To see if we had set something up wrong we have also tried port forwarding these ports on the first WAN1 IP address of say 122.122.122.2 but again nothing is logged with SYSLOGS

This is the first time we have tried configuring a Draytek, usually use Zyxel firewalls without any issues so I was …
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Dear Experts

to setup new office what IP addressing is recommended as it is common to use 192.168.1.0/24 but I would like to go for something different and this network will have to be get connected over the VPN from other location and they may be using 19.168.1.0/24,  this new network yet to be setup will have internal dns and dhcp and leased line and mpls connectivity. the total users or end devices within this network will not be more than 75, I prefer other than 192.168.1.0/24 is there a recommend/best  practice in selecting a particular ip addressing for private lan network please suggest,  is it good to go with 192.168.0.1/24 or something like 192.168.100.0/24 or any other ip addressing recommended please suggest.
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If you have two Internet feeds with BGP attracting traffic to your site and one goes out - should that interfere with ongoing uploads?
Say I had 200 uploads via sftp to my site. Provider A does some maintenance but Provider B stays up. Traffic load drops to 50
uploads. Since the connections are TCP/SFTP I would think they would just pause and then continue once the available path became
available. Or is it the case that the reconvergence/hold down timers are likely just too long to keep most of those conversations
alive?
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I had to tackle a challenge to use Cradlepoint routers to provide backup WAN connectivity for my remote sites. This is how I did it.
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GLBP Configuration


gl
I have configured GLBP on R3,R4,R5 shown in the topology above.
I would like to know why,in the output below, the Standby Router is showing the R5 instead of R4 , they have the default priority. I wonder if the Highest Mac address factors in the election if Standby Router.
another thing that I want to understand is the keyword "Preempt" in the configuration routers that are not AVG.
I know that Priority will determine which router will be the AVG now and which router will take over as AVG if the current AVG is down, but the keyword "Preempt" is still not clear to me when it should factor in




R3#sh run | sec glbp
 glbp 1 ip 192.168.1.254
 glbp 1 priority 150
 glbp 1 preempt
R3#

Open in new window


R4#sh run | sec glbp
 glbp 1 ip 192.168.1.254
 glbp 1 preempt
R4#

Open in new window


R5#sh run | sec glbp
 glbp 1 ip 192.168.1.254
R5#


R3#sh glbp brief    
Interface   Grp  Fwd Pri State    Address         Active router   Standby router
Gi0/0       1    -   150 Active   192.168.1.254   local           192.168.1.15
Gi0/0       1    1   -   Active   0007.b400.0101  local           -
Gi0/0       1    2   -   Listen   0007.b400.0102  192.168.1.14    -
Gi0/0       1    3   -   Listen   0007.b400.0103  192.168.1.15    -
R3#

Open in new window


*** another issue that I cannot figure out  the cause is the Traceroute from Hosts. if it goes through R3( the AVG) , it will make it to R2, but when Traceroute goes through R4 or R5 it displays the Exclamation Mark with H letter, as shown below:

Host#traceroute 192.168.23.2

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 192.168.23.2

  1 192.168.1.15 12 msec 12 msec 12 msec
  2 192.168.1.15 !H  !H  !H
Host#clear arp              
Host#traceroute 192.168.23.2

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 192.168.23.2

  1 192.168.1.13 1016 msec 12 msec 8 msec
  2 192.168.23.2 44 msec 20 msec 24 msec
Host#
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What are the best methods to translate or determine what an IP v6 address equivalent IP v4 address is?
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What are the steps necessary to disable SNMP polling on a Kyocera TASKalfa 3051ci network printer?

I have logged onto this printer within a web browser using its IP address but I'm not sure where to go to disable the SNMP polling.

Attached is the manual for this printer.

TASKalfa_3051ci...Re_03_-ENG-.pdf
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Hello Experts.

I am trying to modify the way I receive a fax / text message / email each week that indicates a particular blood count.

I'm on blood thinners. Each Friday I have a sample of my blood drawn at a "local" hospital to arrive at a number that indicates if my blood is in a safe, thin range.

After the laboratory at the "local" hospital has calculated the result, they send a fax with the count to the "central" hospital. Then, the "central hospital" screws around for a couple of days and ultimately sends me an email indicating the result. The problem is, the "central hospital" doesn't do their part promptly and reliably. Furthermore, I say "what good is the tesr result if its old?" I want the result ASAP.

So, I'm thinking... Maybe I can get the "local" hospital to send a fax to a phone number on the Internet. The destination phone number would be that of a small utility that does "fax forwarding".

 Then, I'd like to have this small Internet utility forward the fax to the "central" hospital (where they can screw around with the fax to their heart's content) AND then the small Internet utility would send me the product of a fax that has been converted into an email.

Now, has anyone ever heard of such an Internet service?

Any ideas?

Thanks very much,

Gordon
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I have setup RRAS on Server 2012 R2 specifically using L2TP as the primary connection in for remote access.
I also enabled port forwarding on the router to be directed to the server hosting RRAS.  We were initially using an old outdated router and found out it didn't support L2TP so it was replaced, however, we still cannot get this to work.

RRAS Setup:
Enabled for IPv4 using a static DHCP Address Pool
Authentication provider is windows authentication
Accounting provider is windows accounting
Preshared key has been setup

The ports I forwarded are:
L2TP port 1701 UDP
Port 500 UDP
Port 4500 UDP

I also tried TCP/UDP on these ports and still unable to connect.

VPN End User setup:
Setup for L2TP
Requires encryption
Setup to use CHAP and MS-CHAP v2
Also tried using EAP-MSCHAP but no change
Ensured I entered the correct Preshared key for L2TP

Confirmed RRAS is OK as I have been able to get PPTP working without issue.

When we try to connect to L2TP it hangs on connecting......

We've exhausted our resources on solving this issue at this point.

Thanks!
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As you can see from the pic below, there is inconsistency in the aggregated links. Sw2 has 3 members in po10 and sw1 only has 2. How will the traffic for vlan1 flows from sw2 to sw1? Will it take ten1/9/3 into its decision to send the frames to sw1? How about sw1 STP, will it block e2/9? Thanks

pic
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I have to RE IP a Print server virtual machine and change the VLAN in production and want to make sure I do it correctly without locking myself out of the VM and making sure the users can still print. I have listed the steps I will take, please let me know if they are right

1. Complete snapshot of print server virtual machine
2. RE IP print server
3. Update DNS record to new IP
4. change VLAN to correct VLAN
5. Run the command ipconfig /flushdns

After these steps Users should be able to print and I should be able to log in print server with hostname
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Hardware:
- (1) Cisco SG250 26P PoE switch
- (2) Ruckus WiFi ZoneFlex R610 access points (using their Unleashed setup)

I'm about to create/implement my first VLAN's, I'm pretty stoked I finally get to play with VLAN's. I've been doing IT/networking since 1991 but never did VLAN's. I've configured Sonicwall firewalls from scratch but this is my first Cisco device I get to admin; thankfully it has a GUI. I've already researched the heck out of VLAN's, trunk ports, tagging, & more, & I feel I'm ready to do it. I have the freedom to create this new network as if it were the original network built for this office. Almost all the employees are out of town for next week so it's an ideal time to build a new network. There are no Windows servers or any network services on this WiFi network; all that stuff is on the "corporate" network. This WiFi network I'm replacing/upgrading is what could be referred to as a "rogue" network that this department installed themselves just so they'd have faster Internet.

I'm creating VLAN's so our business can separate the Guest WiFi traffic to its own VLAN but also allow some inter-VLAN routing to allow our screen-sharing solution (Airtame) that guests will be using to talk to our big screens in the conf rooms, which will remain on our internal/business VLAN.

We currently have a Netgear Orbi Pro WiFi network setup but that's not quite robust/sophisticated enough for what we need to do. I'm keeping this existing Orbi WiFi network hardware …
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Hi

i configured OSPF between cisco ASR and Juniper router (service Provider).

OSPF neighbour has formed and exchange routes.

but ASR is logging a message " Cannot see ourself in hello from <juniper router id>, state INIT"

This is not happening all the time. its happening randomly once or twic a week. Mostly happening duing the peak hours of the business (but traffic is not hitting the maxium BW).

Due to this i can see some of the remote sites having high latency connecting to the DC for 2 -3 min and then when OSPF is normal the high latency is goiing away.

Not sure why the OSPF is flapping. Any particular config i need to add between juniper and Cisco ASR to Work.

regards
Logesh
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I have four peer to peer computers using Windows 10.   "net view"  only returns a 6118 error for all computers.  I can ping each computer by IP address.  

I have tried everything. Nothing works.   So each computer cannot fully communicate with each other except using HomeGroup which is limiting.   "The list of servers for this workgroup is not currently available."

thank you
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If I have a Skype for Business Online account  most folks reach me by a regular 10 digit telephone number.
But should people be able to reach me also at a sip address like sip://joebob@acme.com?
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I need help in configuring HA/load balance from Site A to Site B. Site A is the PRODUCTION and Site B is the BACKUP SITE. We have lease two Private line with two different providers running different speed. I need to configure Load Balance from Site A to Site B and vice-versa if possible, but i am more concert Site A to Site B.
We have Cisco 3850 on Site A, and two interfaces  connected to each ISP. Site B, we have Cisco 3750, and two interfaces connected to each ISP as illustrated.
ISP #1 is live with IP 10.10.10/32 passing all traffic between two site as of now. Type of traffic is IP, UDP, TCP, HTTPS, and FTP.
I need help configuring ISP#2 . I need to use both private line at the same time for load balancing using these two switches, and automatically fail-over if one line is down.  
I heard of Ether-channel, IP Based Policy, and Network load balancing. I need help with commands and scenario in the illustration below.  I greatly appreciate with the right directions.
Thanks a lot.
WAN
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I did a speed test from several speed test sites for my 1 gig Internet circuit and my download and upload are so different. The upload seems fine but the download is so off. It never passes 250Mbps. I have another 300 Mbps with another ISP and when I tested it with the speedtest sites, the download and upload are almost the same, around 250Mbps.
The tech was onsite and tested with his test set and he said that he gets around 900Mbps upload and download.
How do I explain this? Can I trust the 1G circuit provider? What is the explanation for the speedtest sites reported big differences between download and upload.

Any thoughts? Thanks
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Cannot Route-MAP Loopback IPA into OSPF.

Setting static routes I'm able to ping from a PC to IP Address (IPA) 192.168.100.7.  I would like to have IPA 192.168.100.7 distributed via OSPF to illminate static routes.

I've attempted to use Extended ACL but have failed.
Trouble-Shooting.vsd
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hi which port can I use to connect to another pc using tcp client?
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I have recently been assigned a task to compare Wireless Router RV130W with another model of devices which happened to have the same function.

Appreciate if anyone can provide expert ideas on what and how to compare Cisco, DLINK, TP-LINK and etc..
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STP Topology Change and Loop

I would like to know in which case an STP loop can be formed.
I believe I know that  Topology Change can  cause one of the blocking mode to switch to forwarding and  one of the forwarding port to become blocking.

What about STP Loop? unless if you disable STP , I do not see in which situation where the Loop can be formed .

Thank you
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Relation between icmp and tcp,udp?
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I haven't dealt much with SBS Exchange / certificates.  

This network is getting this popup recently. Clicking on details, I see the certificate expired a couple weeks ago - I think that's when the users started getting the error message.

Realistically, what is the argument for paying the money to get a new certificate vs. removing the old one ( any tips on how to do that)?

This is a location that is not concerned about security - everyone in the office knows everyone else's passwords / they don't change their passwords, they are really frugal.  

How do I explain why they need / should spend the money for a new certificate (and who do you like getting them from?) or what's the downside of just removing the expired cert?
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How can I find my ending IP address using my starting ip address? With a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0
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VRRP to HSRP!?
We are moving from incumbent ISP who manage our WAN and firewalls.  The current config is the following:

HP L3 switch
vlan1 192.168.3.0/24
vlan20 192.168.100.0/24
vlan50 (no IP)

Firewall connected to vlan1 and vlan20
Router(s) running VRRP and connected to vlan50..

We now are changing the setup slightly for the new config.
Same principle but the firewall is in the cloud as an MPLS.

What/how best to deploy the routers in HSRP?

Thanks
0

Networking Protocols

11K

Solutions

16K

Contributors

Networking software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system that implements the networking functionality of the operating system. The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model. Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite.[9] Some of the best known protocol suites include: IPX/SPX, X.25, AX.25, AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Other protocols indirectly related to networking include the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and its related technologies, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name Server (DNS) and other Internet protocols.