Networking Protocols

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Networking software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system that implements the networking functionality of the operating system. The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model. Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite.[9] Some of the best known protocol suites include: IPX/SPX, X.25, AX.25, AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Other protocols indirectly related to networking include the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and its related technologies, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name Server (DNS) and other Internet protocols.

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Our client is planning to get Nuage networks to offer SD-WAN, can someone tell in simple language what Nuage can offer that can't be offered by regular MPLS network?
0
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-Common barriers companies experience when moving to the cloud
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Hi All,

I am having problems loading OS image onto a new Nexus 9504 with 2 sup below are the steps i have tried, any advise would be much appreciated. image i am using is nxos.7.0.3.I5.2.bin

1. Reload switch and
2. Ctrl + C
3. cmdline recoverymode=1 and cmdline init_system
4. boot nxos.7.0.3.I5.2.bin (which is copied on bootflash/)
5. After this it starts configs and took some time but displayed other messages: System is coming up ... Please wait ...
6.After this, it returns to bash shell: bash-4.2# and nothing happens
7. Both switches, I have reloaded twice and retied again; but still same.

when i exit it takes me into (standby) login: but requires username and password which i have tried all the defaults and will not let me in.

Thanks
0
Hi Sir,

Would like to ask for your help about the problem listed below,

[Tunnel Authorize Fail] ignoring Delete SA payload: PROTO_IPSEC_ESP SA(0xccb797a8) not found (maybe expired)

Hoping that you can help me resolve this matter.


Thank you in advance.
0
Is this a mistake or  am i  checking sth wrong , how should be a packet with missing checksum ?

0000   a0 36 9f 55 7c aa dc 38 e1 ac 9b 89 08 00 45 00  .6.U|..8......E.
0010   00 25 8b cb 00 00 fd 11 d7 aa 89 3c 5a 64 b9 b6  .%.........<Zd..
0020   bc fa fc 5d 69 87 00 11 00 00 ff ff ff ff 55 38  ...]i.........U8
0030   55 76 03 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00              Uv..........

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Screen-Shot-2017-08-13-at-17.28.06.png
0
I am using this Arris NVG443 router in conjunction with an Obitalk 200 to use internet (DSL)  VOIP to make and receive phone calls. The problem is no matter what service I use ie. Google voice (free), Onesuite (subscription),  ALL calls made and received drop within minutes. Using Onesuite provider  all calls drop at exactly 9 minutes every time. Obitalk support says to configure my router to this:
In order for your OBi to be able to send packets w/o interruption, please configure your router as follows:

Allow Outgoing:
TCP Ports: 6800, 5222, 5223
UDP Ports: 5060, 5061, 10000 to 11000, 16600 to 16998, 19305
Allow Incoming on UDP Port: 10000

Problem is: There is nowhere to enter all these ports? Just one range.
 Router has port forwarding and port triggering . In port forwarding there is only a global port range  one port # to another port #, and one base port.
In port triggering there is just a trigger range same as above, one port to one port, and one open port range same as above.

Not sure what to enter into router and can't seem to find any answers ?
0
Dear Team,

There is port already open between  Source -target servers.
i have tested the same using telnet command.

However while I am creating some Datasource in Application server, i am getting  the above error message.

Kindly let me know if there anything required  at OS/App servet/network side .

Kindly advice
=== ERR MESSAGE IS =========
>
<Aug 7, 2017 4:52:24 PM AST> <Warning> <Deployer> <BEA-149004> <Failures were detected while initiating activate task for application 'test'.>
<Aug 7, 2017 4:52:24 PM AST> <Warning> <Deployer> <BEA-149078> <Stack trace for message 149004
java.rmi.RemoteException: [Deployer:149150]An IOException occurred while reading input.; nested exception is:
        java.net.NoRouteToHostException: No route to host
        at weblogic.deploy.service.internal.transport.http.HTTPMessageSender.sendMessageToServerURL(HTTPMessageSender.java:343)
0
Screen-Shot-2017-08-06-at-11.30.59-A.png
on the topology above , I have R1 and R6 on AS 1, R5 on AS3 , R2,R3,R4 on AS2

I would like to have Routers on AS1 (R1 and R6) Not take route through AS3 to reach routers inside AS2, instead I want AS1 routers to go straight to AS2 through R1 using BGP Default Local Preference command on R1

you can see in the config below on R1 :
bgp default local-preference 600


Below is the BGP route configuration on R1, R6, R3. As you can see R6 is going through AS3 to reach routers in AS2 instead of going straight to AS2 through R1

If you need more info , please feel free to ask.


Thank you

R1#sh run | beg router bgp
 bgp default local-preference 600
 network 1.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
 neighbor 192.168.12.2 remote-as 2
 neighbor 192.168.16.6 remote-as 1

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R6#sh run | beg router bgp
router bgp 1
 no synchronization
 bgp log-neighbor-changes
 neighbor 192.168.16.1 remote-as 1
 neighbor 192.168.56.5 remote-as 3

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R5#sh run | beg router bgp
router bgp 3
 network 5.5.5.0 mask 255.255.255.0
 neighbor 192.168.35.3 remote-as 2
 neighbor 192.168.56.6 remote-as 1

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R1# sh ip bgp
BGP table version is 13, local router ID is 1.1.1.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
              r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

   Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 1.1.1.0/24       0.0.0.0                  0         32768 i
* i2.2.2.0/24       192.168.56.5             0    100      0 3 2 i
*>                  192.168.12.2             0             0 2 i
* i3.3.3.0/24       192.168.56.5             0    100      0 3 2 i
*>                  192.168.12.2                           0 2 i
* i4.4.4.0/24       192.168.56.5             0    100      0 3 2 i
*>                  192.168.12.2                           0 2 i
* i5.5.5.0/24       192.168.56.5             0    100      0 3 i
R1#

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R6#sh ip bgp              
BGP table version is 6, local router ID is 192.168.56.6
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
              r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

   Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*>i1.1.1.0/24       192.168.16.1             0    600      0 i
* i2.2.2.0/24       192.168.12.2             0    600      0 2 i
*>                  192.168.56.5                           0 3 2 i
* i3.3.3.0/24       192.168.12.2             0    600      0 2 i
*>                  192.168.56.5                           0 3 2 i
* i4.4.4.0/24       192.168.12.2             0    600      0 2 i
*>                  192.168.56.5                           0 3 2 i
*> 5.5.5.0/24       192.168.56.5             0             0 3 i

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R5# sh ip bgp             
BGP table version is 10, local router ID is 5.5.5.5
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
              r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

   Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 1.1.1.0/24       192.168.56.6                           0 1 i
*> 2.2.2.0/24       192.168.35.3                           0 2 i
*> 3.3.3.0/24       192.168.35.3             0             0 2 i
*> 4.4.4.0/24       192.168.35.3                           0 2 i
*> 5.5.5.0/24       0.0.0.0                  0         32768 i
R5#

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0
Need list of unencrypted protocols.

I know only port 80(HTTP) and 21(FTP)
0
I am looking into DMVPN issue. My tunnel keeps dropping, isakmp and ipsec is OK. If I shutdown my dmvpn tunnel interface and bring it back up, it all comes back up. Any ideas?

- I have 300 some sites with literally identical tunnel set up and config, none are doing this.
- all interfaces are UP and UP. Including tunnel int, outside and inside int's.
0
Hi, I want to open connection from RHEL to FTPS server, receive "Fatal error: gnutls_handshake: A TLS packet with unexpected length was received" error when start to transfer file to the FTPS server.

Any idea?

 lftp -v
LFTP | Version 4.0.9 | Copyright (c) 1996-2010 Alexander V. Lukyanov

LFTP is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with LFTP.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Send bug reports and questions to the mailing list <lftp@uniyar.ac.ru>.

Libraries used: Readline 6.0


FileCopy(0xbcd2c0) enters state INITIAL
FileCopy(0xbcd2c0) enters state DO_COPY
---- dns cache hit
---- Connecting to x.com (10.0.0.1) port 21
copy: get hit eof
copy: waiting for put confirmation
FileCopy(0xbcd2c0) enters state CONFIRM_WAIT
GNUTLS: HSK[0xbfc2c0]: Keeping ciphersuite: DHE_RSA_AES_128_CBC_SHA1
GNUTLS: HSK[0xbfc2c0]: Keeping ciphersuite: DHE_RSA_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA1
GNUTLS: HSK[0xbfc2c0]: Keeping ciphersuite: DHE_RSA_AES_256_CBC_SHA1
GNUTLS: HSK[0xbfc2c0]: 

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0
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LVL 3
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bgp
on the topology above  I have R1 and R2 on AS12 and R3 on AS3

I am using Next-Hop-Self on R2 to tell R1 "in order to reach R3 come to me", but does not seem to work.

Here is the configuration  of BGP on each router.
R1#sh run | beg router bgp
router bgp 12
 no synchronization
 bgp log-neighbor-changes
 network 1.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
 neighbor 192.168.12.2 remote-as 12

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R2#sh run | beg router bgp
router bgp 12
 no synchronization
 bgp log-neighbor-changes
 neighbor 192.168.12.1 remote-as 12
 neighbor 192.168.12.1 next-hop-self
 neighbor 192.168.23.3 remote-as 3
 neighbor 192.168.23.3 next-hop-self

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R3#sh run | beg router bgp
router bgp 3
 no synchronization
 bgp log-neighbor-changes
 network 3.3.3.0 mask 255.255.255.0
 neighbor 192.168.23.2 remote-as 12

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I cannot ping from R1 to R3 and vice-versa

If I advertize networks 192.168.12.0 and 192.168.23.0 From R2 then I will be able to ping from R1 to R3 and back

Any idea ?

Thanks
0
bgpon the topology above I configured Route-Reflector on R5 to get full reachability.
My Confusion is I have seen some examples where they configure Next-hop-self.
for instance this :https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QMkJfnMNZm8

Any BGP expert out there to clarify when Route-Reflector should be used and when Next-hop-self should be used ? If I had used Next-hop-self in my scenario, will that work fine just as Route-reflector did ?

Thank you

======


R2,R5,R3 are on the same AS  (AS2), they are IBGP Routers
 R1 is in AS1 and R4 in AS3



R1#sh run | beg router bgp
router bgp 1
 network 1.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
 network 192.168.12.0
 neighbor 192.168.12.2 remote-as 2

R2#sh run | beg router bgp
router bgp 2
 network 2.2.2.0 mask 255.255.255.0
 network 192.168.12.0
 network 192.168.25.0
 neighbor 192.168.12.1 remote-as 1
 neighbor 192.168.25.5 remote-as 2

R3#sh run | beg router bgp
router bgp 2
 network 3.3.3.0 mask 255.255.255.0
 network 192.168.34.0
 network 192.168.35.0
 neighbor 192.168.34.4 remote-as 3
 neighbor 192.168.35.5 remote-as 2

R4#sh run | beg router bgp
router bgp 3
 network 4.4.4.0 mask 255.255.255.0
 network 192.168.34.0
 neighbor 192.168.34.3 remote-as 2

R5#sh run | beg router bgp
router bgp 2
 no synchronization
 bgp log-neighbor-changes
 network 5.5.5.0 mask 255.255.255.0
 network 192.168.25.0
 network 192.168.35.0
 neighbor 192.168.25.2 remote-as 2
 neighbor 192.168.25.2 …
0
bgp

I have the topology above.
I configured BGP on R1:AS1  ,R2: AS2  and R4:AS2 ,R5:AS3 , I have also configured OSPF on R2,R4,R3
BGP is not configured on R3, just OSPF

Now when I  try to ping R5 from R2 or the R1 from R4 I get the UUUUU

Below is the configuration of all 5 Routers

R1#sh run
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 1385 bytes
!
upgrade fpd auto
version 15.0
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
no service password-encryption
!
hostname R1
!
boot-start-marker
boot-end-marker
!
!
no aaa new-model
!
!
!
ip source-route
no ip icmp rate-limit unreachable
ip cef
!
!         
!
!
no ip domain lookup
no ipv6 cef
!
multilink bundle-name authenticated
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
redundancy
!
!
ip tcp synwait-time 5
! 
!
!
!         
!
!
!
!
interface Loopback0
 ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
 !
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
 ip address 192.168.12.1 255.255.255.0
 duplex half
 !
!
interface Ethernet1/0
 no ip address
 shutdown
 duplex half
 !
!
interface Ethernet1/1
 no ip address
 shutdown
 duplex half
 !
!
interface Ethernet1/2
 no ip address
 shutdown
 duplex half
 !
!
interface Ethernet1/3
 no ip address
 shutdown
 duplex half
 !
!
!
router bgp 1
 no synchronization
 bgp log-neighbor-changes
 network 1.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
 neighbor 192.168.12.2 remote-as 2
 no auto-summary
!
ip forward-protocol nd
no ip http server
no ip http secure-server
!
!
!
no cdp log mismatch duplex
!
!
!
!
!
!

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0
bgpI have the topology shown  above.  R1 and R5 are running BGP, R2  and R4 are  running BGP and OSPF , R3 is running just OSPF

I would like to know if I need to run BGP on R3 in addition to OSPF, or just redistribute BGP into OSPF and OSPF into BGP on R2 and R4


Thank you
Screen-Shot-2017-07-27-at-2.33.23-PM.png
1
I have a verizon wireless net extender for signal increase. The extander needs port tcp 53 allowed for this to work. I have included the below packettrace and it looks like it's passing through just fine but... the extender does not work. If I bypass the ASA, it works even though I did not configure any NAT or permit ACL's. I was assuming that since the device start the communication, that I dont need it. I also included a link to verizon about what config I need on ASA. How can I make this work>?

https://www.verizonwireless.com/support/knowledge-base-25525/

FW/pri/act# packet-tracer input inside tcp 10.255.8.20 1234 69.78.34.151 53 detailed
Phase: 1
Type: ACCESS-LIST
Subtype:
Result: ALLOW
Config:
Implicit Rule
Additional Information:
 Forward Flow based lookup yields rule:
 in  id=0x2aaadaf78770, priority=1, domain=permit, deny=false
        hits=2410723433, user_data=0x0, cs_id=0x0, l3_type=0x8
        src mac=0000.0000.0000, mask=0000.0000.0000
        dst mac=0000.0000.0000, mask=0100.0000.0000
        input_ifc=inside, output_ifc=any

Phase: 2
Type: ROUTE-LOOKUP
Subtype: Resolve Egress Interface
Result: ALLOW
Config:
Additional Information:
found next-hop ******* using egress ifc  outside

Phase: 3
Type: ACCESS-LIST
Subtype: log
Result: ALLOW
Config:
access-group inside_in in interface inside
access-list inside_in extended permit ip any4 any4 log disable
Additional Information:
 Forward Flow based lookup yields rule:
 in  id=0x2aaad7b2c010, priority=13, 

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0
I need to redistribute two (of about 10) static routes into BGP.  My memory  of route-map configurations are a little fuzzy.... does this look right?

ip route 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 2.2.2.2 tag 100
ip route 1.1.1.2 255.255.255.255. 2.2.2.2 tag 101

Route-map Static_Routes permit 10
 match tag 100 101

router bgp 00000
 redistribute static route-map Static_Routes
0
bgp
On the  screenshot above R1 is in AS1 and R2 in AS 2
I advertised Loopback networks from both Routers, but cannot see it in each other router BGP table

R1#sh run
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 1519 bytes
!
! Last configuration change at 19:08:12 UTC Tue Jul 25 2017
!
upgrade fpd auto
version 15.0
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
no service password-encryption
!
hostname R1
!
boot-start-marker
boot-end-marker
!
!
no aaa new-model
!
!
!
ip source-route
no ip icmp rate-limit unreachable
ip cef    
!
!
!
!
no ip domain lookup
no ipv6 cef
!
multilink bundle-name authenticated
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
redundancy
!
!
ip tcp synwait-time 5
! 
!         
!
!
!
!
!
!
interface Loopback0
 ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
 !
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
 ip address 192.168.12.1 255.255.255.0
 duplex half
 !
!
interface Ethernet1/0
 no ip address
 shutdown
 duplex half
 !
!
interface Ethernet1/1
 no ip address
 shutdown
 duplex half
 !
!
interface Ethernet1/2
 no ip address
 shutdown
 duplex half
 !
!
interface Ethernet1/3
 no ip address
 shutdown
 duplex half
 !
!
!
router bgp 1
 no synchronization
 bgp log-neighbor-changes
 network 1.1.1.1 mask 255.255.255.255
 network 192.168.12.0
 neighbor 192.168.12.2 remote-as 2
 no auto-summary
!
ip forward-protocol nd
no ip http server
no ip http secure-server
!
!
ip route 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.255 192.168.12.2
!
no cdp log mismatch duplex
!
!
!
!
!
!

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0
Hello

I dont understand why I would have this in my eigrp config. What is this filtering at this point? To me, this looks as not having any distribution list at all.

Router#
Router#sh run | sec eigr
router eigrp 2
 distribute-list prefix BLOCK-EIGRP-DEFAULT in
 network 10.0.0.0
 passive-interface default
 no passive-interface Tunnel0
 eigrp stub connected
Router#
Router#
Router#
Router#
Router#
Router#
Router#sh ip prefix-list BLOCK-EIGRP-DEFAULT
ip prefix-list BLOCK-EIGRP-DEFAULT: 2 entries
   seq 5 deny 0.0.0.0/0
   seq 10 permit 0.0.0.0/0 le 32
Router#

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0
Hello Experts,
Please suggest how to configure Precision Time Protocol (PTP) client with Mellanox (driver: mlx4_en, version: 4.1-1.0.2 (27 Jun 2017), firmware-version: 2.40.7000) on Centos 6.8 64bit system.
0
Will your db performance match your db growth?
LVL 3
Will your db performance match your db growth?

In Percona’s white paper “Performance at Scale: Keeping Your Database on Its Toes,” we take a high-level approach to what you need to think about when planning for database scalability.

Is there any cisco switch which can take the full internet BGP table?
0
We just moved from WinINET to WinHTTP. The latter does not have an equivalent InternetCanonicalizeUrl function.

The WinHTTP docs say that WinHTTPOpenRequest does this automatically but there is nothing there that specifically addresses this.

According to this reference you can use WinHTTPCreateURL which uses a URL_COMPONENTS structure to define the various URL parts. In the latter the lpszExtraInfo property is where you put the ?param=xyz& ... part.

Here is my problem - one of the parameters in the paramter string needs to be canonicalized as it could contain non-URL friendly characters (Example &).

With the WinINET version we used InternetCanonicalizeUrl on the specific URL parts which were then appended to the URL string.

Example
If we have a URL now that looks like this
mydomain.com?param='Name & Surname','Description'

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And we pass that to WinHTTPOpenRequest - it does not know that the & in Name & Surname is data and not a parameter separator.

Question:
How do we canonicalize individual parameters in the URL with WinHTTP
0
Hi,



Can anyone help in identifying why once my vpn client enabled. I can  ping all other internal IPs except 192.168.4.1(interface DatabaseZone)  and 192.168.3.1. My vpn client assigned 192.168.5.100 which is in  the range ov VpHi,



Can anyone help in identifying why once my vpn client enabled. Cant ping any of internal IPs configuration like 192.168.4.1(interface DatabaseZone) . My vpn client assigned 192.168.5.100 which is in  the range of Vpnclients object-group configuration.nclients object-group configuration.

here attached output from "show vpn-sessiondb detail remote"
vpn-sesssiondb-detail.txt
0
There's been a lot of discussion lately about Net Neutrality and the various pros/cons. While I'm loath to have unnecessary legislation or "solutions in search of a problem" and greatly respect those viewpoints of the debate, I've ultimately fallen on the side in favor of Net Neutrality. Nilay Patel over at The Verge pulls no punches in his eloquent article that highlights so many of the reasons that have shaped my view on the issue.

It's a long read, but well worth it. This sort of thing impacts all of us in IT and no matter what happens or what opinions you hold on the matter, I'm hopeful we can all find common ground in keeping the internet great.
3
Hi All,

Could you all help with this config I'd like to implement OSPF ?& if this is the correct configuration to implement?



MAN(config-if)# ip address 10.10.12.13 255.255.255.0
MAN(config-if)# no shut

BEL(config-if)# ip address 10.10.12.12 255.255.255.0
BEL(config-if)# no shut

2. The routing OSPF between routers:
MAN(config)# router OSPF 1
MAN(config-router)# network 10.10.14.0 0.0.0.255 a 0
MAN(config-router)# network 10.10.12.0 0.0.0.255 a 0
MAN(config-router)# network 10.200.3.0 0.0.0.255 a 0

BEL(config)# router OSPF 1
BEL(config-router)# network 10.10.120 0.0.0.255 a 0
BEL(config-router)# network 10.10.11.0 0.0.0.255 a 0
BEL(config-router)# network 10.202.3.0 0.0.0.255 a 0

LON(config)# router OSPF 1
LON(config-router)# network 10.10.0.0 0.0.0.255 a 0
LON(config-router)# network 10.10.0.0 0.0.0.255 a 0
LON(config-router)# network 10.0.3.0 0.0.0.255 a 0

BATH(config)# router OSPF 1
BATH(config-router)# network 10.0.14.0 0.0.0.255 a 0
BATH(config-router)# network 10.0.10.0 0.0.0.255 a 0
BATH(config-router)# network 10.0.3.0 0.0.0.255 a 0
OSPF-NEW.PNG
0
Wake-up on Lan over the internet???

Inside LAN environment Wake-up on LAN is working for my PC.
But i want to make Wake-up on Lan working over the internet, I don't have public ip address.
Is it possible? If yes let me know how??


OS: Windows 7 Ultimate 64 bit edition
Processor: Intel i3 3.5Ghz
RAM: 16GB
HDD: 1TB
0

Networking Protocols

11K

Solutions

16K

Contributors

Networking software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system that implements the networking functionality of the operating system. The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model. Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite.[9] Some of the best known protocol suites include: IPX/SPX, X.25, AX.25, AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Other protocols indirectly related to networking include the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and its related technologies, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name Server (DNS) and other Internet protocols.