Networking Protocols

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Networking software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system that implements the networking functionality of the operating system. The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model. Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite.[9] Some of the best known protocol suites include: IPX/SPX, X.25, AX.25, AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Other protocols indirectly related to networking include the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and its related technologies, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name Server (DNS) and other Internet protocols.

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Configuring network clients can be a chore, especially if there are a large number of them or a lot of itinerant users.  DHCP dynamically manages this process, much to the relief of users and administrators alike!
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by:Jim Horn
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Nice work.  Voted Yes.
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NFR key for Veeam Agent for Linux
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NFR key for Veeam Agent for Linux

Veeam is happy to provide a free NFR license for one year.  It allows for the non‑production use and valid for five workstations and two servers. Veeam Agent for Linux is a simple backup tool for your Linux installations, both on‑premises and in the public cloud.

Mikrotik OSPF Network
Creating an OSPF network that automatically (dynamically) reroutes network traffic over other connections to prevent network downtime.
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This is the first one of a series of articles I’ll be writing to address technical issues that are always referred to as network problems. The network boundaries have changed, therefore having an understanding of how each piece in the network  puzzle works will help troubleshoot any network issue.
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by:Linda Saulnier
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Very good article. I learned DNS in school, but now that I am in a working environment, I have been learning how DNS works first hand, and I really enjoyed your article. Thank you.
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by:jorge diaz
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Thank you Linda.  Yes, DNS has always been and will always be (at least for the foreseeable future) relevant.
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We recently endured a series of broadcast storms that caused our ISP to shut us down for brief periods of time. After going through a multitude of tests, we determined that the issue was related to Intel NIC drivers on some new HP desktop computers we'd recently purchased.

The Problem

The broadcast storm would occur if the desktop PC went into sleep mode for an extended period of time. We had one PC push out several gigs of network traffic in a matter of seconds. Strangely, we had eight new PC's all on a configuration bench and all were in sleep mode but only three of them were causing the storm. The randomness of the problem made it that much more difficult to diagnose.

This problem first popped up around a year ago with the Intel i217-LM NIC drivers. Some users on a Cisco message board were suggesting that the solution was to disable IPv6, but this did not work. In fact, we disabled IPv6 across our whole network thinking this would stop the broadcast storms but we got another one the very next day. What's so odd about all this is that you have the leading manufacturer of PC's (HP) using a motherboard with one of the leading manufacturers of NIC drivers (Intel) and all running the world's most popular desktop PC OS (Windows) and the problem stil persists.

The Solution

Upgrading the NIC drivers is the only solution here. However, you can't count on Windows Update to give it to you. This means you nead to visit Intel's site
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by:William Fulks
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These were all Windows 7 Professional 64-bit PC's.
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by:Senior IT System Engineer
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Cool, thanks for sharing.
glad that you're resolved / share the issue here as well.
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SSL is a very common protocol used these days when browsing the web.  The purpose is to provide security to communication, but how does it do it?  There are several pieces at work that have to be setup before SSL will even work and it requires both the client and server to be configured properly or no communication will succeed.

Terms
PKI - Public Key Infrastructure. The entire environment that generates/maintains keys and certificates.
CA - Certificate Authority.  The issuer/signer of public keys that create certificates
Asymmetric Keys - Cryptographic keys that are different but mathematically related
Symmetric Keys - Cryptographic keys that are the same exact key
Public Key - the asymmetric key that is used by public people; generally by the client to encrypt data only (except for digital signature)
Private Key - the asymmetric key that is kept private; used only by the owner to decrypt data only (except for digital signature)
SSL Handshake - the process that happens when a client and server try to establish an SSL connection
Cipher - The cryptographic algorithm used to encrypt data
Hash - Used for message authentication
Cipher Suite - A collection of ciphers and hashs providing a suite of cryptographic services for a message
One way SSL - Client validates who the server is.  Server doesn't validate the client
Two way SSL - One way SSL but server validates the client as well.  AKA, mutual auth or client auth SSL

Server Configuration
The server is …
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Please see preceding article here: http://www.experts-exchange.com/Networking/Operating_Systems/A_11209-Root-Bridge-Election.html

RootPort01

Figure 1


After Root Bridge has been elected, then what?.....

Let's start by defining a Root Port in lay man's terms

A Root Port is the switchport a switch chooses with the determination that it is the closest or fastest port to reaching the Root Bridge.

Notice "reaching the Root Bridge"
It is easy to confuse Root Ports as the ports on the Root Bridge. The Root Port is the port that leads to the Root Bridge.

Eg
From San Francisco, California, Interstate 5 Southbound leads to Los Angeles. You will not find any Highway inside Los Angeles that says "To Los Angeles". If you see any such sign around the area, then it means you are not in Los Angeles. The same I5 that takes you to L.A from S.F, takes you back to S.F. from L.A. in the reverse direction. The sign changes to "To San Francisco"

Long story short. You will never find a Root Port on a Root Bridge.
Any switch you see with a Root Port Label means it is not a Root Bridge.

I hope I made that clear enough without bugging you with repetition.

With that out of the way, there are several criteria the switch uses to determine which of its ports is most reliable path to the Root Bridge.

This also implies the following.
- There can only be 1 Root Port on a switch.
- All switches except the Root Bridge must each have a Root Port

Before I …
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by:Cyclops3590
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Umm, I never stated a root bridge was to have a root port; quite the contrary actually.  Look at the picture again.  Switch A has the lower mac and they have the same bridge priority.  So Switch A is the root.  And as you point out, all its ports are designated then which the picture shows.  What it doesn't show is a root port on Switch B.  Which in this case would be port fa0/1 and for the exact reason you mention in the article.  But beyond that.  no link in a switched network can have both sides be designated.  That is an invalid state.

Pointing out a small mistake on a picture is not trying to cripple the article because from what I saw nothing is really wrong with what you are saying.  My first point was an omission of data (which I agree with you was mostly likely to keep then article easier to understand but I stated why I thought it should be included).  The second point was simply pointing out that the last image should be fixed.  No where did I state that any text needs to change as everything you said is true.  I merely don't want people to be confused after you go thru explaining the entire process that there is no root port in that 2 switch network you are using as an example.  Or to think it is ok to have 2 ports on the same link to be in designated state.  You clearly know what you're talking about, I just figured it was an oversight.
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by:lherrou
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Cyclops3590, thank you for your clarification. I have removed the portion of Akinsd's comment. Please keep it civil, and dedicated to improving information to the reader.
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network communicationThe article explains the protocols and technology which is involved when two computers on different TCP/IP networks communicate with each other.

In the diagram, a router is used to segregate two networks. The networks are 192.168.1.0/24 and 192.168.2.0/24. The corresponding interface IP address on the routers are 192.168.1.1/24 and 192.168.2.1/24 as shown in the diagram.

The interfaces on the router are connected to ports on the switch , to which the computers are connected. The IP address of the computers are 192.168.1.2 (PC1) and 192.168.2.2 (PC2).

Take a scenario where PC1 wants to communicate with PC2.  For the communication to be succesfull, the TCP/IP adapter settings of PC1 and PC2 should be configured with the corresponding gateway addresses. The gateway addresses are required , since , communication is to be achieved between devices on two different networks.

The gateway for PC1 should be a device , which is accessible to it , and which is capable of forwarding the information to the intended network. In the diagram, the router would be the ideal gateway. But the router has two interfaces, which are configured for two different IP addresses.

 So which IP address should the PCs use. For example, the IP address 192.168.1.1 should be used as the gateway IP address for PC1 and IP address 192.168.2.2 should be used as the gateway IP address for PC2. What would happen if 192.168.2.1 is used as the gateway for PC1 ?

PC1 would not be …
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Expert Comment

by:Sandroch
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9. PC will construct Ethernet II type Ethernet frame.
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Understanding FTPS

File transfer is a common requirement in most Enterprises. While there are numerous ways to get a file from Point A to Point B over a network, perhaps the most common method still in use is FTP – File Transfer Protocol. FTP is a network file transfer protocol that was first described in RFC 959 in 1980 and has gone through numerous changes and additions since that time.

By itself, FTP offers no meaningful security. Connections are password-protected, but all data (including passwords) is sent in plain text over the network. These days, of course, security is a chief concern and plain old FTP is no longer an option for moving sensitive data over the Internet.

To address these security concerns, a strategy was devised to add a layer of security to FTP using SSL/TLS. This new protocol is known as FTPS and is described in RFC 2228. Today, most FTP clients and servers support this FTPS protocol out of the box without requiring significant expertise on behalf of the user.

Still, when attempting to set up a new FTPS connection in most off-the-shelf FTP clients, the users still must choose from a bewildering array of choices with names like FTPS Implicit and FTPS CCC, among others.

This article will explain what these choices mean and how to successfully determine which options are right for your connection.

Understanding Ports

First, a little background on TCP/IP (the underlying protocol of the Internet) is necessary. Most people…
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I know for anybody starting from Beginner to Expert in Networking knows what OSI model. But this tutorial is for freshers or those who are new to networking world. Why I am putting OSI in such simple and compact manner is because it enables you to know more things in less time.

7 Layers of OSI reference model

1) Application Layer
2) Presentation Layer
3) Session Layer
4) Transport Layer
5) Network Layer
6) Data link Layer
7) Physical Layer

Features of OSI layer 1 or 2 sentences

1) Application Layer ::
Provides services to the user application. Acts as an interface between the user and application. Some of the functions are identifying communication partners, determining resource availability, and synchronizing communication.
Few protocols that working in this layer ::  HTTP, FTP, DHCP, DNS

2) Presentation Layer ::
Provides independence from data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating between application and network formats. In short it generifies data.
Few protocols that working in this layer ::  SSL, MIME

3) Session Layer ::
Establishes, manages and terminate virtual connection between the applications on systems at both end. Keeps the logical sessions separate.
Few protocols that working in this layer ::  NetBIOS, L2TP, PPTP

4) Transport Layer ::
This layer takes care of the transfer of data like whether the communication to be reliable or not.
Controls the reliability of a given link through flow control, …
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by:Karthikeyan Ganesan
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Princess
Diana
Not
To
See
Prince
Albert

:-)

Thanks,
Karthik
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by:fmha
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You remind me thoes old days.

Thanks for refreshing my memory.
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A few months ago I attended the Rocky Mountain IPv6 Summit which was a two-day educational event; it was the 3rd annual conference held here in Denver, Colorado that was held at the Hyatt Regency Denver at the Colorado Convention Center. It was an eventful conference with many outstanding speakers: John Curran, Shannon McFarland, Scott Hogg, Chuck Sellers, Danny McPherson, and many others.

The President and CEO of ARIN made it very clear:
"As we dip below the 10% mark for available IPv4 resources, it has become more vital for all organizations to implement IPv6 before time runs out"

As of this writing, we are down to 6 percent of the /8 IANA unallocated address pool. The projected RIR unallocated address pool is expected to be exhausted by March 3rd of 2012. What you might not know is that today, there are organizations attempting to reach your mail, web, and Internet facing applications via IPv6. The Time is Now to get acquainted with IPv6; it is being implemented along the side with IPv4 (Dual Stack) in most carrier infrastructure and ISP markets. IPv6 has been discussed and analyzed for many years now. The time has come where it can no longer be ignored and large service providers such as Comcast acknowledge the need to begin the long and delicate transition to a full IPv6 model; Comcast is currently beta testing phases for the residential and commercial market and is already running IPv6 on their backbone; Many of the Tier1 networks have …
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Expert Comment

by:Inglis Dean
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Among the imperative needs that needs to be molded to your policies for allocating and assigning is the fact that there must be absolute uniqueness Internet-wide. With this being stated, opt for whenever you can the address space that you simply allocate and assign be distributed inside a hierarchical manner to make sure that route aggregation limits the explosion from the Internet routing tables.

https://www.cheap-essay-writing.co.uk/assignments-writing-services-uk/
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Networking Protocols

11K

Solutions

16K

Contributors

Networking software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system that implements the networking functionality of the operating system. The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model. Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite.[9] Some of the best known protocol suites include: IPX/SPX, X.25, AX.25, AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Other protocols indirectly related to networking include the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and its related technologies, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name Server (DNS) and other Internet protocols.