Networking Protocols

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Networking software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system that implements the networking functionality of the operating system. The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model. Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite.[9] Some of the best known protocol suites include: IPX/SPX, X.25, AX.25, AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Other protocols indirectly related to networking include the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and its related technologies, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name Server (DNS) and other Internet protocols.

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Can someone explain to me where consensus algorithms fit within the TCP/IP model?  Let use Raft as an example.  Does it use multicast?  Does it use it's own transport number or TCP/UDP?  Does it live on the application layer?

Thanks
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when I do a pptp VPN from my network over an ATT router I get this error only on my windows 10 devices (1 desktop and 2 laptops) via WiFi and via Hardline. my 1 win7 desktop has no issues and when I put the win10 devices on a different network (my hotspot) the VPN goes through with no issues. any ideas?

I've already tried disabling the win10 stations local firewall and that did not help.
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I am sysadmin..I want to know

I want to reach the server, to check the connectivity thru specific port.
This is just to varify whether the required firewall rule defined properly or not.
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Consider the below scenario

userPC---- firewall --- Destination-server
                         10.1.1.1


I have installed some software on the server, the service  of that software is using port # 301.

1) Scenario...
      Firewall defined
      server#  service UP
        userPC# telnet 10.1.1.1 301  --> user get reply

2)Scenario...
      Firewall defined
      server# service DOWN

is there any command/3rdparty-tools available to just varify, pockets from userPC able to reach on the server through port#301

==
This I asked just to segregate if there any issue, problem from firewall side (or) destination server side.
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I am trying to run an inventory on our servers. All I get in return are DCOM errors in event logs. I speculate the firewalls are blocking traffic but I cannot see anything helpful in Wireshark. I thought that telnet over 135 would fail but does not. Also ICMP is not blocked or I would not be able to ping the servers

Event Viewer
DCOM was unable to communicate with the computer XXXXXX using any of the configured protocols; requested by PID     2780 (C:\Windows\SysWOW64\cscript.EXE), while activating CLSID {8BC3F05E-D86B-11D0-A075-00C04FB68820}.


I have attached the Wireshark capture
pac.pcapng
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I'd like to redistribute eigrp into bgp on the Nexus 7009. I'd also like to set the correct metric. From my understanding, I have to use route map. I did some research and could not find any good info. Any helps will be greatly appreciated.
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Hi... Can anyone tell me what is this Simple Network Audio Protocol running on port 4752 ? Thanks
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Hi Need to upgrade the firmware of an Aruba 2530 48G PoE+ Switch

The switch is in our remote office. I'm trying to set my laptop up as a TFTP server and connect to its public IP address over port 2222. It fails to upload the software.

Any idea please
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We have a client who has just had installed a BTNet Leased line installed.
They have 8 static (5 usable) IP address on the line (/29 subnet) assigned. Lets say this is 122.122.122.0/29
We have configured the WAN1 of the Draytek with this range and configured the WAN IP address as 122.122.122.2, subnet 255.255.255.248 and its Gateway to point to 122.122.122.1

Connected a PC to the LAN1 and LAN2 Ports on the Draytek which allows us to access the Internet OK - All Works OK from LAN to WAN.

We are now trying to Port Forward specific ports (lets say 22 and 23 - SSH and Telnet) on the next useable IP address (122.122.122.3) through to a device on LAN2 which has been configured on a different LAN/Local Subnet (192.168.2.0/24). The device is on an IP address of 192.168.2.2, LAN2 IP on Draytek is 192.168.2.1

The Draytek can ping to the device with an IP of 192.168.2.2 but we cannot seem to get the NAT/Port forwarding to work correctly.

We have tried using One to One NAT for this solution along with a Firewall rule to allow WAN to LAN2 traffic for these ports. Logging (SYSLOG) is turned on for this rule but no traffic is ever reaching the firewall rule as no logs are produced.

To see if we had set something up wrong we have also tried port forwarding these ports on the first WAN1 IP address of say 122.122.122.2 but again nothing is logged with SYSLOGS

This is the first time we have tried configuring a Draytek, usually use Zyxel firewalls without any issues so I was …
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Hi

i configured OSPF between cisco ASR and Juniper router (service Provider).

OSPF neighbour has formed and exchange routes.

but ASR is logging a message " Cannot see ourself in hello from <juniper router id>, state INIT"

This is not happening all the time. its happening randomly once or twic a week. Mostly happening duing the peak hours of the business (but traffic is not hitting the maxium BW).

Due to this i can see some of the remote sites having high latency connecting to the DC for 2 -3 min and then when OSPF is normal the high latency is goiing away.

Not sure why the OSPF is flapping. Any particular config i need to add between juniper and Cisco ASR to Work.

regards
Logesh
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hi which port can I use to connect to another pc using tcp client?
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Relation between icmp and tcp,udp?
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I 'm looking for a person about whom I only know the name, and looking forward to get more details about him. Is there any service that will provide one with such details???
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I have a BGP routing issue.
when i do a show ip route x.x.x.x
I get

telnet@XMR#sho ip route x.x.x.x
Type Codes - B:BGP D:Connected I:ISIS O:OSPF R:RIP S:Static; Cost - Dist/Metric
BGP  Codes - i:iBGP e:eBGP
ISIS Codes - L1:Level-1 L2:Level-2
OSPF Codes - i:Inter Area 1:External Type 1 2:External Type 2 s:Sham Link
        Destination        Gateway         Port          Cost          Type Uptime
1       x.x.x.x/24      DIRECT          drop          200/0         Bi   7d22h


Why would it say drop?
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Dear sirs,
I am setting up a global exception handler in Spring. Once an exception is caught, a method in the @ControllerAdvice is called in, and returns a specific view with exception details. Among info returned with the view, I have the HttpStatus, that can get. Actually I keep getting 200, while the right HttpStatus should be 500, 404, etc.
Here is my code
@ControllerAdvice
@Slf4j
public class AppGlobalExceptionHandler {
      /*
       * Note: You can either point to Exception Types or Http ResponseStatus
       * @ExceptionHandler({MyException.class})
       * public String ...
       *
       * @ExceptionHandler
       * @ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)
       * public String
       * */
      
      @ExceptionHandler
      public String handleAnyException(Exception exception, Model model,
                  HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) {
            
            log.error("Request raised " + exception.getClass().getSimpleName());
            
            String details = ExceptionUtils.getStackTrace(exception);
            
            AppError error = new AppError();
            error.setStatus(response.getStatus());
            error.setUrl(String.valueOf(request.getRequestURL()));
            error.setMessage(exception.getMessage());
            error.setDetails(details);
            
            model.addAttribute(AppStringHandler.VARIABLE_URL_SUBMIT, AppStringHandler.URL_TASKS_SEND_EMAIL_500);
            model.addAttribute(AppStringHandler.VARIABLE_URL_REDIRECT, AppStringHandler.URL_ADMIN_REDIRECT);
            model.addAttribute(AppStringHandler.VIEW_ERROR_MODEL_ATTRIBUTE, error);
            
            …
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Hello.
I am looking for anybody who would assist me to set up my Zabbix server. It's already installed but I need a complete guide how to set up Items, Triggers and so on... we use SNMP. I also need some recommendations which items and triggers use while monitoring switches, APs, servers, disk arrays, virtual machines and domain computers.

I appreciate any help. Thank you.
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hi all
i have problem on switch hpe 1920 on ports which activate on it mac authentication on port security service. there is random disconnection on ports. i search for the problem and i found some people talk that the problem cause from enabling mstp on switch so i disabled it the problem still exit ,please help me if you can.
logs-for-switch.jpg
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I am working on an Outlook Calendar problem.  The issue is with the Calendar not able to identify attendees free time in specific condition (Endpoint has OpenDNS).  I know the issue is somewhere around DNS.  What I am hoping someone can help me to understand are steps that happen when Calendar querying attendees free time.  Specifically within the OSI stack, how does DNS play into the query?
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DDNS service detected Host *****123.com by ipcfg cmd and UpdaterClient service in Temp.IPv6,


Few Questions :
           1) wireless Router getting WAN.IPv6 privileged over the wire. Router ?

           2) ISP has dhcpv6 to some clients enterprise way at Apr. 2014 when the multiple networks complexity trailing two years later ?

           3) Motherboard  OEM Vista II replaced off in 2010 and lost from home of ,  found  the  board having Repaired records recently at the OEM machines account however , nobody claim to verify or stop its applying when ,  THIS 1st bulit-in board.mac presented on my 2nd board hold with computer running . Its DUID in the 1st board mac address and broadcasting , as IANA and NIC rules protocols, DUID  won't be modified even board changed.

           4) The broadcasting / casted machines, nodes, networks and so on info globally , how to correct and be updated ?  NOWHERE to be acceded these years which already contacted anywhere maybe help this.


PHOTO: ipcfg temp.ipv6  , updator, ddns
ipcfg temp.ipv6  , updator, ddns
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CompTIA Network+
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CompTIA Network+

Prepare for the CompTIA Network+ exam by learning how to troubleshoot, configure, and manage both wired and wireless networks.

I had this question after viewing UUID for OEM Bios no embedded Ethernet mac address , after vista II OS , is it protecting or abnormal ?.


Yes,

This topic case can be closed as:

UUID is modifiable feature as many as no limited with motherboard changed .  Vista II DUID with IPv6 can not be changed followed rules of NIC and IANA.


Question recreated as:
Vista II DUID ahead of dhcpv6 valid from my ISP Apr. 2014 , broadcasting to the networks, taken away authentication  and rollback me as its client of "server" .  ISP prolonging for treating this since 2012 with dhcpv4 only to later it having had dhpv6 .  The Modem.ISP only can release an fe80:: layer IPv6 to the gateway and as dns.ipv6 by the ipcfg /all command reported.

Whose DHCPv6 broadcasting DUID embedded OEM motherboard.mac replaced off and lost ?
ipcfg modem dns
Gateway assigned fe80:: local layer IPv6 from the stranger upper device , unauthenticated "Server"  device / platform?
modem gateway IPv6 fe80::

Your writing  back are expected on  how to modify this and calculate the mass caused inside the complexity .  Let have a valid IPv6 directly from ISP.   ISP routering service not relied these years by 1996 , because the poor firewall and account Username duplicated in high/low case. While the local wireless …
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Good Day,

We have a Canon MX 920 Series printer on one IP Range, and the user on another IP Range.

When installing the printer software/driver it does a scan for printers on the Computer's subnet but finds none. It does not give the option to enter the IP Address, how do I setup/install a Canon MX 920 Series printer on a PC using the WSD (Web Services on Devices) protocol for printing if the two are on different IP Ranges?

Thank you for assistance.

Reinhard.
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What lower-layer protocol encapsulates SNMP messages?
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Hello all, this is my 1st questions in this forum.  hopefully, I am in the correct place.  if not, my apologies.

Hoping to get some guidance on dual WAN links configuration... here goes...

I presently have 1 x 100mb fibre from Rogers as our main WAN link.  actually, I also have 100mb BELL MPLS as well, soon to be decommissioned.  Also have 2 x 3750 cisco - stacked.

We recently got another 100mb link to be used as our backup link if the primary fails.

Rogers primary - EIGRP
Bell - OSPF
Rogers Backup - will be EIGRP

presently have VLAN 340 carved out for PRIMARY link.  will use VLAN 350 for BACKUP.

like to get some guidance how to configure the 2nd link to be a failover link in case the PRIMARY goes down.

I am no way a routing expert...
what would be an acceptable configuration that I can apply?  Nothing fancy, just wanted to make backup link available as quickly as possible when primary goes down.

this is what I presently have in my PRIMARY EIGRP:
router eigrp 1
 network 10.30.0.7 0.0.0.0
 network 192.168.30.1 0.0.0.0
 network 192.168.31.1 0.0.0.0
 network 192.168.32.1 0.0.0.0
 network 192.168.33.1 0.0.0.0
 network 192.168.36.1 0.0.0.0
 network 192.168.37.1 0.0.0.0
 network 192.168.130.1 0.0.0.0
 redistribute ospf 1 metric 1500 20000 255 1 1500
 redistribute static
 passive-interface default
 no passive-interface Vlan340

the OSPF lines will go away eventually.


is it best to use VLAN or L3 interface?  does it matter or is …
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My server admin is asking of me to open up 1000 ports for a server to run passive FTP. Is there any other way to have passive FTP without opening up all those ports?
What concerns should I be aware of security wise in doing this?
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show ip pim nei
PIM Neighbor Table
Mode: B - Bidir Capable, DR - Designated Router, N - Default DR Priority,
      P - Proxy Capable, S - State Refresh Capable, G - GenID Capable


Neighbor          Interface                Uptime/Expires    Ver   DR
Address                                                                                                 Prio/Mode
10.0.0.193        TenGigabitEthernet1/2    11w1d/00:01:29    v2    1 / S P G
10.0.0.209        TenGigabitEthernet3/1    11w0d/00:01:41    v2    1 / S P G
10.0.16.13        TenGigabitEthernet4/7    11w2d/00:01:25    v2    1 / G
10.0.16.9         TenGigabitEthernet4/8    11w2d/00:01:27    v2    1 / G


What does it mean when I only have the G in the mode column?

The link at 4/7 and 4/8 is eBGP peer.
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Networking Protocols

11K

Solutions

16K

Contributors

Networking software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system that implements the networking functionality of the operating system. The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model. Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite.[9] Some of the best known protocol suites include: IPX/SPX, X.25, AX.25, AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Other protocols indirectly related to networking include the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and its related technologies, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name Server (DNS) and other Internet protocols.