Networking Protocols

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Networking software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system that implements the networking functionality of the operating system. The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model. Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite.[9] Some of the best known protocol suites include: IPX/SPX, X.25, AX.25, AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Other protocols indirectly related to networking include the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and its related technologies, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name Server (DNS) and other Internet protocols.

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I have a BGP routing issue.
when i do a show ip route x.x.x.x
I get

telnet@XMR#sho ip route x.x.x.x
Type Codes - B:BGP D:Connected I:ISIS O:OSPF R:RIP S:Static; Cost - Dist/Metric
BGP  Codes - i:iBGP e:eBGP
ISIS Codes - L1:Level-1 L2:Level-2
OSPF Codes - i:Inter Area 1:External Type 1 2:External Type 2 s:Sham Link
        Destination        Gateway         Port          Cost          Type Uptime
1       x.x.x.x/24      DIRECT          drop          200/0         Bi   7d22h


Why would it say drop?
0
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Does any one know why might be causing a a lot of TCP DUP ACK and TCP Retransmission for a FTP transfer?  We also get a "426 File transfer failed" error in the packet capture.
0
Dear Team,

I want to block UDP port 123 for time sync between my Domain controller and external time server time.windows.com

Also i want the internal time sync of member with domain controller on tcp port rather than UDP. Is it possible. Can you please help.

Regards,
0
Dear sirs,
I am setting up a global exception handler in Spring. Once an exception is caught, a method in the @ControllerAdvice is called in, and returns a specific view with exception details. Among info returned with the view, I have the HttpStatus, that can get. Actually I keep getting 200, while the right HttpStatus should be 500, 404, etc.
Here is my code
@ControllerAdvice
@Slf4j
public class AppGlobalExceptionHandler {
      /*
       * Note: You can either point to Exception Types or Http ResponseStatus
       * @ExceptionHandler({MyException.class})
       * public String ...
       *
       * @ExceptionHandler
       * @ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)
       * public String
       * */
      
      @ExceptionHandler
      public String handleAnyException(Exception exception, Model model,
                  HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) {
            
            log.error("Request raised " + exception.getClass().getSimpleName());
            
            String details = ExceptionUtils.getStackTrace(exception);
            
            AppError error = new AppError();
            error.setStatus(response.getStatus());
            error.setUrl(String.valueOf(request.getRequestURL()));
            error.setMessage(exception.getMessage());
            error.setDetails(details);
            
            model.addAttribute(AppStringHandler.VARIABLE_URL_SUBMIT, AppStringHandler.URL_TASKS_SEND_EMAIL_500);
            model.addAttribute(AppStringHandler.VARIABLE_URL_REDIRECT, AppStringHandler.URL_ADMIN_REDIRECT);
            model.addAttribute(AppStringHandler.VIEW_ERROR_MODEL_ATTRIBUTE, error);
            
            …
0
WIN7/64 am getting a Schannel error periodically with roughly the same details below:

- <Event xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/win/2004/08/events/event">
- <System>
  <Provider Name="Schannel" Guid="{1F678132-5938-4686-9FDC-C8FF68F15C85}" />
  <EventID>36887</EventID>
  <Version>0</Version>
  <Level>2</Level>
  <Task>0</Task>
  <Opcode>0</Opcode>
  <Keywords>0x8000000000000000</Keywords>
  <TimeCreated SystemTime="2018-02-06T19:33:08.508128300Z" />
  <EventRecordID>1078269</EventRecordID>
  <Correlation />
  <Execution ProcessID="684" ThreadID="748" />
  <Channel>System</Channel>
  <Computer>XX</Computer>
  <Security UserID="X-X-X-XX" />
  </System>
- <EventData>
  <Data Name="AlertDesc">70</Data>
  </EventData>
  </Event>

Searched and read, but can't find an answer. Machine runs fine.  Can't seem to track errors to a particular event/online session. (Is there a daily log of a machine's activity?) How else to troubleshoot? Again, this happens every three or four days but only in the last two-three months. Have all three major browsers but only use Firefox regularly and IE11on sites that require it.  Connect regularly to a Univ server and databases, but it tests across several days could not make error reproduce. Thanks.
0
Hello.
I am looking for anybody who would assist me to set up my Zabbix server. It's already installed but I need a complete guide how to set up Items, Triggers and so on... we use SNMP. I also need some recommendations which items and triggers use while monitoring switches, APs, servers, disk arrays, virtual machines and domain computers.

I appreciate any help. Thank you.
0
I was reading as below

TCP - is a transport layer protocol. It works over an IP network
HTTP - is an application protocol. It works using TCP on an IP network

i was not clear. Does HTTP also uses HTTP
what other protocols there in networking.

nay good link, resources or free video tutorial to understand clearly these things?
please advise
0
I am trying to figure out why R2 does not see S2 as its eigrp nei (see diagram). R1 can see S1 and R2. The only difference is a L2 switch between R2 and S2.

diagram
R2#sh ip eigrp nei

IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 100

H   Address         Interface      Hold Uptime    SRTT   RTO   Q   Seq

                                   (sec)          (ms)        Cnt  Num

0   10.10.200.2     Gig0/0         12   01:02:56  40     1000  0   11

Open in new window


R1#sh ip eigrp nei

IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 100

H   Address         Interface      Hold Uptime    SRTT   RTO   Q   Seq

                                   (sec)          (ms)        Cnt  Num

0   10.10.200.1     Gig0/0         12   01:03:19  40     1000  0   9

1   10.10.20.254                   13   00:41:23  40     1000  0   10

Open in new window


S1#sh ip eigrp nei

IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 100

H   Address         Interface      Hold Uptime    SRTT   RTO   Q   Seq

                                   (sec)          (ms)        Cnt  Num

0   10.10.101.2     Gig0/2         13   00:43:10  40     1000  0   7

1   10.10.20.250    Vlan           11   00:42:57  40     1000  0   12

Open in new window



S2#sh ip eigrp nei

IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 100

H   Address         Interface      Hold Uptime    SRTT   RTO   Q   Seq

                                   (sec)          (ms)        Cnt  Num

0   10.10.101.1     Vlan           12   00:43:56  40     1000  0   9

Open in new window

0
hi all
i have problem on switch hpe 1920 on ports which activate on it mac authentication on port security service. there is random disconnection on ports. i search for the problem and i found some people talk that the problem cause from enabling mstp on switch so i disabled it the problem still exit ,please help me if you can.
logs-for-switch.jpg
0
I am working on an Outlook Calendar problem.  The issue is with the Calendar not able to identify attendees free time in specific condition (Endpoint has OpenDNS).  I know the issue is somewhere around DNS.  What I am hoping someone can help me to understand are steps that happen when Calendar querying attendees free time.  Specifically within the OSI stack, how does DNS play into the query?
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Suppose I have a WAN switch with SVI interface vlan 777 and ip address 192.168.99.97/28. If I want that specific address to advertise to the other side of the WAN connection (another interface) what ne.eds to be in the router process?

router ospf 1
router-id 192.168.99.0
no passive-interface 777
network 192.168.99.97 0.0.0.15 area 192.168.99.0
network 192.168.99.0 0.0.0.63 area 0

Should that be enough to get 192.168.99.97 advertised into ospf? Thank you.
0
DDNS service detected Host *****123.com by ipcfg cmd and UpdaterClient service in Temp.IPv6,


Few Questions :
           1) wireless Router getting WAN.IPv6 privileged over the wire. Router ?

           2) ISP has dhcpv6 to some clients enterprise way at Apr. 2014 when the multiple networks complexity trailing two years later ?

           3) Motherboard  OEM Vista II replaced off in 2010 and lost from home of ,  found  the  board having Repaired records recently at the OEM machines account however , nobody claim to verify or stop its applying when ,  THIS 1st bulit-in board.mac presented on my 2nd board hold with computer running . Its DUID in the 1st board mac address and broadcasting , as IANA and NIC rules protocols, DUID  won't be modified even board changed.

           4) The broadcasting / casted machines, nodes, networks and so on info globally , how to correct and be updated ?  NOWHERE to be acceded these years which already contacted anywhere maybe help this.


PHOTO: ipcfg temp.ipv6  , updator, ddns
ipcfg temp.ipv6  , updator, ddns
0
I had this question after viewing UUID for OEM Bios no embedded Ethernet mac address , after vista II OS , is it protecting or abnormal ?.


Yes,

This topic case can be closed as:

UUID is modifiable feature as many as no limited with motherboard changed .  Vista II DUID with IPv6 can not be changed followed rules of NIC and IANA.


Question recreated as:
Vista II DUID ahead of dhcpv6 valid from my ISP Apr. 2014 , broadcasting to the networks, taken away authentication  and rollback me as its client of "server" .  ISP prolonging for treating this since 2012 with dhcpv4 only to later it having had dhpv6 .  The Modem.ISP only can release an fe80:: layer IPv6 to the gateway and as dns.ipv6 by the ipcfg /all command reported.

Whose DHCPv6 broadcasting DUID embedded OEM motherboard.mac replaced off and lost ?
ipcfg modem dns
Gateway assigned fe80:: local layer IPv6 from the stranger upper device , unauthenticated "Server"  device / platform?
modem gateway IPv6 fe80::

Your writing  back are expected on  how to modify this and calculate the mass caused inside the complexity .  Let have a valid IPv6 directly from ISP.   ISP routering service not relied these years by 1996 , because the poor firewall and account Username duplicated in high/low case. While the local wireless …
0
Good Day,

We have a Canon MX 920 Series printer on one IP Range, and the user on another IP Range.

When installing the printer software/driver it does a scan for printers on the Computer's subnet but finds none. It does not give the option to enter the IP Address, how do I setup/install a Canon MX 920 Series printer on a PC using the WSD (Web Services on Devices) protocol for printing if the two are on different IP Ranges?

Thank you for assistance.

Reinhard.
0
What lower-layer protocol encapsulates SNMP messages?
0
any of you ever seen a lan ip that starts with 205.162.2.x ?   is this normal?
0
Hello all, this is my 1st questions in this forum.  hopefully, I am in the correct place.  if not, my apologies.

Hoping to get some guidance on dual WAN links configuration... here goes...

I presently have 1 x 100mb fibre from Rogers as our main WAN link.  actually, I also have 100mb BELL MPLS as well, soon to be decommissioned.  Also have 2 x 3750 cisco - stacked.

We recently got another 100mb link to be used as our backup link if the primary fails.

Rogers primary - EIGRP
Bell - OSPF
Rogers Backup - will be EIGRP

presently have VLAN 340 carved out for PRIMARY link.  will use VLAN 350 for BACKUP.

like to get some guidance how to configure the 2nd link to be a failover link in case the PRIMARY goes down.

I am no way a routing expert...
what would be an acceptable configuration that I can apply?  Nothing fancy, just wanted to make backup link available as quickly as possible when primary goes down.

this is what I presently have in my PRIMARY EIGRP:
router eigrp 1
 network 10.30.0.7 0.0.0.0
 network 192.168.30.1 0.0.0.0
 network 192.168.31.1 0.0.0.0
 network 192.168.32.1 0.0.0.0
 network 192.168.33.1 0.0.0.0
 network 192.168.36.1 0.0.0.0
 network 192.168.37.1 0.0.0.0
 network 192.168.130.1 0.0.0.0
 redistribute ospf 1 metric 1500 20000 255 1 1500
 redistribute static
 passive-interface default
 no passive-interface Vlan340

the OSPF lines will go away eventually.


is it best to use VLAN or L3 interface?  does it matter or is …
0
My server admin is asking of me to open up 1000 ports for a server to run passive FTP. Is there any other way to have passive FTP without opening up all those ports?
What concerns should I be aware of security wise in doing this?
0
show ip pim nei
PIM Neighbor Table
Mode: B - Bidir Capable, DR - Designated Router, N - Default DR Priority,
      P - Proxy Capable, S - State Refresh Capable, G - GenID Capable


Neighbor          Interface                Uptime/Expires    Ver   DR
Address                                                                                                 Prio/Mode
10.0.0.193        TenGigabitEthernet1/2    11w1d/00:01:29    v2    1 / S P G
10.0.0.209        TenGigabitEthernet3/1    11w0d/00:01:41    v2    1 / S P G
10.0.16.13        TenGigabitEthernet4/7    11w2d/00:01:25    v2    1 / G
10.0.16.9         TenGigabitEthernet4/8    11w2d/00:01:27    v2    1 / G


What does it mean when I only have the G in the mode column?

The link at 4/7 and 4/8 is eBGP peer.
0
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I am using this Arris NVG443 router in conjunction with an Obitalk 200 to use internet (DSL)  VOIP to make and receive phone calls. The problem is no matter what service I use ie. Google voice (free), Onesuite (subscription),  ALL calls made and received drop within minutes. Using Onesuite provider  all calls drop at exactly 9 minutes every time. Obitalk support says to configure my router to this:
In order for your OBi to be able to send packets w/o interruption, please configure your router as follows:

Allow Outgoing:
TCP Ports: 6800, 5222, 5223
UDP Ports: 5060, 5061, 10000 to 11000, 16600 to 16998, 19305
Allow Incoming on UDP Port: 10000

Problem is: There is nowhere to enter all these ports? Just one range.
 Router has port forwarding and port triggering . In port forwarding there is only a global port range  one port # to another port #, and one base port.
In port triggering there is just a trigger range same as above, one port to one port, and one open port range same as above.

Not sure what to enter into router and can't seem to find any answers ?
0
Hello Experts,
Please suggest how to configure Precision Time Protocol (PTP) client with Mellanox (driver: mlx4_en, version: 4.1-1.0.2 (27 Jun 2017), firmware-version: 2.40.7000) on Centos 6.8 64bit system.
0
Can someone explain how to configure VB.net so receive data from a push API using the WAMP protocol?

I have tried several different configurations under the vb.net data sources, but none seem to pickup the data?
 

https://poloniex.com/support/api/
0
I need to see the DNS resolution requests of my applications audited and if necessary modified before being sent. I suppose the easiest would be a local resolver that would review my requests before forwarding them to the resolver of my ISP? Another way would be to monitor and be able to override UDP/53 traffi (something I have no clue about). Is there an open source I could use?
Also, I would need this on all OS.
How would you do that? Or would there be a free solution that exists?
Need: support of iDNs as per RFC 5895 for the wole machine (transparent to applications), management of variants, parental control, typos correction. Etc.
Thank you!
0
Hi,

Bit of an odd one, I have set the correct NTP servers up on the config of a yealink T23G phone, having run a pcap I can see that it's dns queries to the NTP server are being refused. The phones are on a segmented VLAN network, as far as I know other handsets on different VLANs are not having this problem and there is nothing unique about how this is set up compared to others.

I have tried upgrading the firmware and different NTP time servers. This is affecting multiple handsets

The message I'm seeing a lot in the capture is that "The Server is not an authority for the domain"

I've attached a sample of the queries I'm seeing in the PCAP.

Any ideas guys?

Many thanks,
Tim
0
Hi !

Is there any way to force the HSRP election process ? I want to change the Standby router to become Active. I am changing the priority value but it s not falling over to the other device.
1

Networking Protocols

11K

Solutions

16K

Contributors

Networking software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system that implements the networking functionality of the operating system. The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model. Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite.[9] Some of the best known protocol suites include: IPX/SPX, X.25, AX.25, AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Other protocols indirectly related to networking include the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and its related technologies, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name Server (DNS) and other Internet protocols.