Networking Protocols

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Networking software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system that implements the networking functionality of the operating system. The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model. Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite.[9] Some of the best known protocol suites include: IPX/SPX, X.25, AX.25, AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Other protocols indirectly related to networking include the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and its related technologies, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name Server (DNS) and other Internet protocols.

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Hardware:
- (1) Cisco SG250 26P PoE switch
- (2) Ruckus WiFi ZoneFlex R610 access points (using their Unleashed setup)

I'm about to create/implement my first VLAN's, I'm pretty stoked I finally get to play with VLAN's. I've been doing IT/networking since 1991 but never did VLAN's. I've configured Sonicwall firewalls from scratch but this is my first Cisco device I get to admin; thankfully it has a GUI. I've already researched the heck out of VLAN's, trunk ports, tagging, & more, & I feel I'm ready to do it. I have the freedom to create this new network as if it were the original network built for this office. Almost all the employees are out of town for next week so it's an ideal time to build a new network. There are no Windows servers or any network services on this WiFi network; all that stuff is on the "corporate" network. This WiFi network I'm replacing/upgrading is what could be referred to as a "rogue" network that this department installed themselves just so they'd have faster Internet.

I'm creating VLAN's so our business can separate the Guest WiFi traffic to its own VLAN but also allow some inter-VLAN routing to allow our screen-sharing solution (Airtame) that guests will be using to talk to our big screens in the conf rooms, which will remain on our internal/business VLAN.

We currently have a Netgear Orbi Pro WiFi network setup but that's not quite robust/sophisticated enough for what we need to do. I'm keeping this existing Orbi WiFi network hardware …
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If I have a Skype for Business Online account  most folks reach me by a regular 10 digit telephone number.
But should people be able to reach me also at a sip address like sip://joebob@acme.com?
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I need help in configuring HA/load balance from Site A to Site B. Site A is the PRODUCTION and Site B is the BACKUP SITE. We have lease two Private line with two different providers running different speed. I need to configure Load Balance from Site A to Site B and vice-versa if possible, but i am more concert Site A to Site B.
We have Cisco 3850 on Site A, and two interfaces  connected to each ISP. Site B, we have Cisco 3750, and two interfaces connected to each ISP as illustrated.
ISP #1 is live with IP 10.10.10/32 passing all traffic between two site as of now. Type of traffic is IP, UDP, TCP, HTTPS, and FTP.
I need help configuring ISP#2 . I need to use both private line at the same time for load balancing using these two switches, and automatically fail-over if one line is down.  
I heard of Ether-channel, IP Based Policy, and Network load balancing. I need help with commands and scenario in the illustration below.  I greatly appreciate with the right directions.
Thanks a lot.
WAN
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I did a speed test from several speed test sites for my 1 gig Internet circuit and my download and upload are so different. The upload seems fine but the download is so off. It never passes 250Mbps. I have another 300 Mbps with another ISP and when I tested it with the speedtest sites, the download and upload are almost the same, around 250Mbps.
The tech was onsite and tested with his test set and he said that he gets around 900Mbps upload and download.
How do I explain this? Can I trust the 1G circuit provider? What is the explanation for the speedtest sites reported big differences between download and upload.

Any thoughts? Thanks
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Cannot Route-MAP Loopback IPA into OSPF.

Setting static routes I'm able to ping from a PC to IP Address (IPA) 192.168.100.7.  I would like to have IPA 192.168.100.7 distributed via OSPF to illminate static routes.

I've attempted to use Extended ACL but have failed.
Trouble-Shooting.vsd
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I have recently been assigned a task to compare Wireless Router RV130W with another model of devices which happened to have the same function.

Appreciate if anyone can provide expert ideas on what and how to compare Cisco, DLINK, TP-LINK and etc..
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STP Topology Change and Loop

I would like to know in which case an STP loop can be formed.
I believe I know that  Topology Change can  cause one of the blocking mode to switch to forwarding and  one of the forwarding port to become blocking.

What about STP Loop? unless if you disable STP , I do not see in which situation where the Loop can be formed .

Thank you
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I haven't dealt much with SBS Exchange / certificates.  

This network is getting this popup recently. Clicking on details, I see the certificate expired a couple weeks ago - I think that's when the users started getting the error message.

Realistically, what is the argument for paying the money to get a new certificate vs. removing the old one ( any tips on how to do that)?

This is a location that is not concerned about security - everyone in the office knows everyone else's passwords / they don't change their passwords, they are really frugal.  

How do I explain why they need / should spend the money for a new certificate (and who do you like getting them from?) or what's the downside of just removing the expired cert?
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How can I find my ending IP address using my starting ip address? With a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0
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Understanding Topology Change Notification on Switches

Reading this article:https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/lan-switching/spanning-tree-protocol/12013-17.html#anc12
If I am getting it right TCN can also be caused by the Hosts that are connected to Access Switches, the article states that this can be avoided by configuring Portfast on interfaces to which the Hosts are connected to .

As far as I know, not all environments configure Portfast on the Interfaces where Hosts connect to, at least the environment where I work. However there is no issue reported even if there was TCN .

Any Switch Expert to shade some lights on this topic.


Thank you
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How does DHCP work with VoIP phones?  Do they phones need to get restarted every time the DHCP lease expires?  Or it works no different than a regular computer client?
For the first time phones need to be booted to obtain IP addresses.  Also when DHCP or DNS server changes.  What about a regular DHCP refresh at the end of the lease duration?
We use Polycom ip phones over poe.
Please advice.
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trying to find out what is the best single authentication method is.

example:  having external users accessing Software As A Service (saas)
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Are there any things to consider when adding another subnet to eBGP router?

Existing:
router bgp 43447
 bgp router-id 192.168.0.111
 address-family ipv4 unicast
  bgp attribute-download
network 16.17.236.0/22

Proposed:
config t
router bgp 43447
network 17.18.236.0/22
exit
wri mem

Do I need to notify the ISP? Any other gotchas? This site has had the one /22 for ages and
want to add this new network as unobtrusively as possible. Any tips appreciated!
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I've changed the configuration of FTP on my Synology NAS from unencrypted to encrypted.
When I now attempt to connect using Filezilla the directory listing never appears:
Status:	Connecting to XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX:21...
Status:	Connection established, waiting for welcome message...
Status:	Initializing TLS...
Status:	Verifying certificate...
Status:	TLS connection established.
Status:	Logged in
Status:	Retrieving directory listing of "/My_Remote_Directory"...
Command:	CWD /My_Remote_Directory
Response:	250 CWD command successful.
Command:	TYPE I
Response:	200 Type set to I.
Command:	PASV
Response:	227 Entering Passive Mode (XXX,XXX,XXX,XXX,XXX,242)
Command:	MLSD
Error:	Connection timed out after 20 seconds of inactivity
Error:	Failed to retrieve directory listing

Open in new window

I've set Filezilla to use Passive transfer mode

My NAS settings are NAS Settings
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I am trying to determine if a policy based routing rule is being hit.

ip access-list send-to-pbr
  10 remark Send traffic for PBR logic
  20 permit ip address group voodoo1 any
  30 permit ip address group voodoo2 any

route-map internet-pbr deny 10
  match ip address bypass-pbr
route-map internet-pbr permit 20
  match ip address send-to-pbr
set ip next-hop 172.16.1.1

Should show access-list send-to-pbr display hits occasioned by the pbr?
Should I be able to see this with show route-map internet-pbr?

I tried the latter and get an error message about stats not being enabled.
sho route-map internet-pbr pbr-statistics
% PBR statistics is not enabled for given route-map
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I am trying to understand what the best practice is to set the metric when redistributed BGP to EIGRP. In my case, at my main location, I have it set as the code below. I know that EIGRP only uses k1 and k2 in its calculation. I did not configure this so I am not sure what k1 is 44.2 Mbps when my MPLS circuit is 300Mbps. It looks like my delay is not the default as well.

...
router eigrp 10
 network 10.0.0.0
 redistribute bgp 65001 metric 44200 2000 255 1 1500
...

Open in new window

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How can I change the next hop in a RIP update.
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I am familiar with making DHCP reservations in Windows Server But am now doing in SonicWALL TZ 215 I can see how this is done, But have some questions when doing this in the ARP section:

What does it mean to Publish Entry?

I assume that I want to bind the MAC address or why would I be setting this up in  the first place?

What is meant by Update IP address dynamically?

In the big picture the user will use PPTP from the Windows server to VPN in.  They have a business app that is Unix based and requires the client system to maintain the same IP address (reservation or static).  So, I need the client to obtain that same IP whether they are in the office or out on the road.

Thank you.
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We currently have a Sonicwall NSA 2600.  We also have a Small Business Server 2011 running Exchange 2010.  The Sonicwall has NAT and firewall configured to pass the mail to the server.  That is working fine.

I have activated a 30 day trial of Sonicwall's Anti-Spam Service.  During the initial configuration I received the following pop up error: "Mail Server Auto-Detect Failed.  The system detects there are one or more NAT and/or Rule policies that use a service group of a service port range that includes SMTP and non-SMTPservice ports.  The system could not enable the Anti-Spam service using the current configuration.

The user guide for enabling Anti-Spam lists a step where you identify the mail server.  I am assuming I need to delete the current NAT and Firewall rules forwarding mail to the server and let the Anti-Spam setup configure them again.  Am I correct?

Any help is appreciated.
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Router A and B are eBGP peers. Router A and C are OSPF neighbors and A learns its default route 0.0.0.0
from router C via OSPF. I want to advertise 0.0.0.0 from router A to router B via eBGP. What needs to be
added to allow that to happen?

Router A
  router bgp 7777
     network 10.0.0.0/8
     network 192.168.0.0/16

  router ospf 1

Router B
  router bgp 1088
    network 10.127.0.0/16

Router C
   router ospf 1
   
    ip route 0.0.0.0/0 10.7.7.1
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Does Cisco CUBE pair need to have IP Addresses in 2 different subnets from MPLS CE Routers? We have a pair of CEs connecting to the Cisco CUBE for the voice. Please clarify.

Thanks;
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Hi Experts,
Our office moved to a new location and suddenly one of my pc's does not want to connect to SQL.
When I try to reconfigure the same DSN, I get the attached error.
Mysteriously, this is only happening to one pc.
Also I'm able to browse the server from that pc thru win explorer.
Any Idea?
FYI- I'm using SQL server login to connect.
Untitled.png
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qConfiguring 802.1 Tunneling Q-in-Q

I have the topology above. I  configured  Q-in-Q, however I cannot ping from R1 to R2 as it is supposed to.

R1#sh run  
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 1756 bytes
!
! Last configuration change at 15:08:00 CET Mon Mar 12 2018
!
version 15.4
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
no service password-encryption
!
hostname R1
!
boot-start-marker
boot-end-marker
!
aqm-register-fnf
!
!
no aaa new-model
clock timezone CET 1 0
mmi polling-interval 60
no mmi auto-configure
no mmi pvc
mmi snmp-timeout 180
!         
!
!
!
!
!


!
!
!
!
ip cef
no ipv6 cef
!
multilink bundle-name authenticated
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!         
!
redundancy
!
!
! 
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
interface Ethernet0/0
 no ip address
!
interface Ethernet0/0.12
 encapsulation dot1Q 12
 ip address 192.168.12.1 255.255.255.0
!
interface Ethernet0/1
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface Ethernet0/2
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface Ethernet0/3
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface Ethernet1/0
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface Ethernet1/1
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface Ethernet1/2
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface Ethernet1/3
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface Serial2/0
 no ip address
 shutdown
 serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial2/1
 no ip address
 shutdown
 serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial2/2
 no ip address
 shutdown
 serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial2/3
 no ip 

Open in new window

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I am not an expert in Cisco. I am just configuring VLAN in my network.
I have create 2 more VLANs other than native VLAN. VLAN 9 with IP 192.168.9.1, VLAN 10 with IP 192.168.10.1 and VLAN1(default) with 192.168.0.254.
Now VLAN9 can reach  VLAN10 and  VLAN10 can reach VLAN9. But VLAN9 and 10 cannot reach VLAN1 IPS. Now I would like to have communication between all these VLANs.
I would like to route all traffics to Fortinet firewall except internal IP traffic. Attached configuration.
Is there anyone who can guide me how to have inter VLAN communication as per best practice?
GTSwitch.txt
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I am not an expert in Cisco. I am just configuring VLAN in my network.
I have create 2 more VLANs other than native VLAN. VLAN 9 with IP 192.168.9.1 and VLAN 10 with IP 192.168.10.1
now VLAN9 can reach  VLAN10 but VLAN10 cannot reach VLAN9. Is there anyone who can guide me how to have inter VLAN communication as per best practice? Attached configuration. Once I am done I need to configure traffic to firewall for internet access.
GTSwitch.txt
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Networking Protocols

11K

Solutions

16K

Contributors

Networking software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system that implements the networking functionality of the operating system. The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model. Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite.[9] Some of the best known protocol suites include: IPX/SPX, X.25, AX.25, AppleTalk and TCP/IP. Other protocols indirectly related to networking include the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and its related technologies, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name Server (DNS) and other Internet protocols.