Networking is the process of connecting computing devices, peripherals and terminals together through a system that uses wiring, cabling or radio waves that enable their users to communicate, share information and interact over distances. Often associated are issues regarding operating systems, hardware and equipment, cloud and virtual networking, protocols, architecture, storage and management.

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AWS has developed and created its highly available global infrastructure allowing users to deploy and manage their estates all across the world through the use of the following geographical components
  • Regions
  • Availability Zones
  • Edge Locations
When architecting and designing your infrastructure it’s important to know where your data is being stored and where your instances and services are located.  This is fundamental when designing and implementing a highly available and scalable network with low latency that abides by any data laws that may be in operation.
If you are studying for the AWS certifications it’s important to know the differences between Regions/Availability Zones and Edge Locations.

What is an AWS Region?

A Region is essentially just that, a geographic location that Amazon has selected to run and operate its Cloud services from.  There are currently 12 different regions exist spanning across the globe at key locations:
North American Regions
  • US East (Northern Virginia)
  • US West (Northern California)
  • US West (Oregon)
  • AWS GovCloud (US) – Reserved for Government agencies only
South American Regions
  • São Paulo
EMEA Regions
  • EU (Ireland)
  • EU (Frankfurt)
Asia Pacific Regions
  • Asia Pacific (Singapore)
  • Asia Pacific (Tokyo)
  • Asia Pacific (Sydney)
  • Asia Pacific (Seoul)
  • China (Beijing) – Limited Public release

Expert Comment

by:prathap C
Hi Scott,

You have mentioned here as " many of the Edge Locations are located some distance away from some of the Regions " i cant get this point.have doubt like whether locations will come under region?

Justnow i have started to learn about cloud.

Thanks by,

Author Comment

by:Stuart Scott
Hi Prathap,

Thank you for your comment.  

Edge location are different from Regions, and as a result do not fall under 'Regions' as a location.  To put the global infrastructure in it's most simple form the different elements can be described as follows:

- Availability Zones (AZs): These are essentially the physical data centers of AWS. This is where the actual compute, storage, network, and database resources are hosted

- Regions: A Region is a collection of availability zones that are geographically located close to one other. This is generally indicated by AZs within the same city.  Regions do not include Edge Locations, only AZs

- Edge Locations: These are AWS sites deployed in major cities and highly populated areas across the globe and they far outnumber the number of availability zones available.  These are used to reduce latency to end users by using the AWS CDN service known as CloudFront.  You are unable to deploy your typical compute, storage, and database services in Edge Locations, the Edge Locations are reserved for simply reducing latency using CloudFront and Lambda@Edge services.

I hope this helps.



In this article, I'll explain how to setup a Plex Media Server on a Redhat (Centos) 7 based NAS with screenshots to help those looking for assistance.

What is Plex?

If you aren't familiar with Plex, it’s a DLNA media server that offers the ability to access your own music, photos, and video. In addition, it also gives you the ability to access these on any of your devices, including PC, Playstation, Xbox, Android phone and tablet, iPhone, iPad, Windows Phone, Chromecast, Roku / Now TV, and so on. Wherever you are, whether that be at home, work, a friends house, or even on a plane (watch your data costs with this one tough, as even a transcoded video will gobble GB's) it will allow access. 

In addition to your media, the service offers the ability to aggregate your own media with artwork, recomendations, and playlists from the web or friends. Essentially it’s a Spotify+Flickr for your content. So, if you’ve got many GB’s of media and are after a handy tool to order and access it, not to mention eliminating the need to physically swap CD’s (just define a few play lists first and control the playback from a phone), this is the perfect tool to help you do so.

In addition to covering the basics, this crib sheet will help you access and map any additional content you have stored in OS X Time Machine sparse bundles, Microsoft .vhd, VMware .vmdk and Oracle .vdi or .iso disk image files on …
Before I go to far, let's explain HA (High Availability) and why you should consider it.  High availability is the mechanism used to provide redundancy to any service at the same site and appears as a single service to the users of that service.  As opposed to DR (Disaster Recovery) which provides a mechanism used to provide redundancy to any service at disparate sites and are mirrors of the same services.  HA is needed incase of component failure.  In the case of this article, we are looking at a netscaler failure, an uplink failure the netscaler depends on, a hard drive failure, or any other failure that may make a netscaler inoperable.  In this case, having a HA pair a second netscaler that stands "idle" will detect that its peer has failed and take over the load balancing duties automatically.  By doing this, it ensures higher availability to the users (hence the HA name) and minimizes impact.  In turn it gives you as the admin breathing room to repair the inoperable node without everyone on you to get services working again.  I hope this explains, although briefly, what HA is and why using HA with a netscaler would be beneficial to you.

When setting up a netscaler HA pair, there are a few things to consider:

1) you don't have to have the devices directly linked to one another like some devices might need to be for HA to work
2) hardware platforms must be identical.  Meaning you can't have a Netscaler 22500 and a 11500 be peers
3) It is not 100% necessary to have …
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Author Comment

yes, I've done this many times before.  Other than what is on edocs I have ZERO images.  I have configs (of which I'm not allowed to share), that's it.  This article was not even proofread, this was purely from memory.  I'm sure others have more time which is why they can do images as well.  this article writing actually constituted about 90-95% of my available time I could dedicate to EE this month.  I just don't have time.  If you are wanting to be a stickler about images though, that is fine.  I will stop writing articles.
Many people tend to confuse the function of a virus with the one of adware, this misunderstanding of the basic of what each software is and how it operates causes users and organizations to take the wrong security measures that would protect them against attacks.

For starters, let’s define what they are: virus and adware are two different types of malware, each exploiting different aspects of computing architecture to carry out their payload. Malware is simply a category used to refer to software designed to disrupt normal system operations, example of malware are: virus, adware, spyware, Trojan, rootkit, bot, etc.

Let’s go back to our original topic and go over what makes a computer virus a virus,  a Computer Virus is a malicious program that can replicate itself without user interaction by exploits Operating System, Applications, and software vulnerabilities. What the virus does after it’s been executed is another story, though the common denominator is that it’ll disrupt normal system operations and it will attempt to replicate itself.

Something interesting about computer virus is that as much as they can be sophisticated programs most of them pray on users’ vulnerabilities for the initial installation, also known social engineering. “Good” virus writers also study human behavior and emotions hence the I Love you Virus ,they plan their initial attack to align themselves with special occasions, dates, …
LVL 33

Expert Comment

by:Thomas Zucker-Scharff

This is an excellent article, but I am surprised that you did not correct more of the mistakes - they make it harder to read (I'm also surprised that a page editor didn't point that out).

Expert Comment

by:Yashwant Vishwakarma
Another good article, voted YES.

Yashwant Vishwakarma
The task of choosing a web design company to build a website for your business should never be taken in a light manner. Provided the fact that your website will act as a representative to your business and will be responsible for imposing an online presence on the internet, it is important to make sure it is built in the most intuitive, informative and streamlined manner. To ensure that your website is customer friendly and is browsed by a good number of visitors, it is indeed vital to choose the right web design company.

However, the market currently is flooded with as many as hundreds of companies in this regard which makes the task of filtering the good out of bad downright difficult. Furthermore, attractive and enticing assertions made by these companies leave customers rather perplexed. Therefore, it is important to know what all things to keep under consideration prior to choosing a web design company. The following section is a guideline in this respect.

1.     Check the Portfolio

A portfolio can say a lot about a company. A genuine and authentic company will always have an online presence and will also boast valid credentials. You can understand the nonsense behind a website designer not having a website. Steer clear of companies that offer their services without having a website of their own. These kind of companies usually have uncertified and unskilled workforce that will not be of much use for your cause.

2.     Get References

This article is a step by step guide on how to create a basic PTP link using Ubiquiti airOS devices. This guide can be used on the following Ubiquiti AirMAX devices. Nanostation, Bullets, AirBridge, Nanobeam, NanoBridge to name a few. Please review all the AirMAX device here.. I will be focusing on the selected part of the diagram below for this guide using two Ubiquiti Nanostation M2's. You can use this setup to create a link between office buildings up to 50miles (depending on the device) 


The factory default IP address for the device is and the subnet mask is (/24) open internet explorer and connect to if you are using one of the latest firmware versions you will be redirected to https and you will see privacy error page
Note: You either need to be in the same IP address range or you would need to change your IP configuration on your PC to static Please follow the quickstart guide from ubiquiti to get the device connected to your PC..

Lets get started.
  • Click on Advanced and then on Proceed to..


Next you will need to enter in the default Username and Password “ubnt” for both.. In this guide I will be using Complaince Test for Country please select your appropaite region..


The next screen that appears is the Main Screen. On this screen you will see all your active connections to your device, firmware version, MAC address
LVL 16

Author Comment

by:Dirk Mare
Thank You

Expert Comment

you are welcome
I am interesting in Ubiquiti and mikrotik Devices do you ?
Imagine you have a shopping list of items you need to get at the grocery store. You have two options:
A. Take one trip to the grocery store and get everything you need for the week, or
B. Take multiple trips, buying an item at a time, to achieve the same feat.
Obviously, unless you are purposefully trying to get out of the house you’d choose “A”. But why do we so often times choose “B” when it comes to our data transmission performance? The key metric here is efficiency.How many trips do you want to take?

MTU…says you need to buy Milk in 1 Gallon containers rather than by the ounce!

MTU is an acronym that stands for the Maximum Transmission Unit, which is the single largest physical packet size, measured in bytes, a network can transmit. If messages are larger than the specified MTU they are broken up into separate, smaller packets also known as packet fragmentation or “fragmented”, which slows the overall transmission speeds because instead of making one trip to the grocery store you are now making multiple trips to achieve the same feat. In other words, the maximum length of a data unit a protocol can send in one trip, without fragmentation occurring is dictated by the MTU value defined.

Do I Really need to Manually Correct the MTU Value?

The correct MTU value will help you select the correct shopping cart size in order to be the most efficient in your grocery shopping so that you don’t have to take multiple trips. Shouldn’t I just leave…

Expert Comment

by:Jason Shaw
Would changing the MTU on on-side of VPN tunnel cause any issues with VPN ?
LVL 32

Author Comment

by:Blue Street Tech
Hi Jason, I assume you are only changing it on one side of a VPN tunnel. If I am correct, then it would only benefit one side of the connection. So if that connection is having the issues then it may remedy the problem, however for greater efficacy I'd do both ends (they most likely will not have the same MTU).
I found an issue or “bug” in the SonicOS platform (the firmware controlling SonicWALL security appliances) that has to do with renaming Default Service Objects, which then causes a portion of the system to become uncontrollable and unstable.


SonicOS separates Service Objects into three different views or groupings: “All Services”, “Custom Services” & “Default Services”. Within each view there are two sections called “Service Groups” & “Services”. Service Groups are simply just Services grouped together for related purposes. Default Services are a list of system-created, commonly used, services that you can utilize to create many different networking policies and rules. They are not only created for convenience but they also play a key role in how default Access Rules function, which I’ll discuss later. For all intents and purposes Default Services Objects and Default Services are synonymous here and I’ll be focusing this discussion on the “Ping” Service Group within Default Services. Ping is just an example, but this bug occurs when renaming any Default Service Object.
Image showing Default Services.Some customers of SonicWALL security appliances will rename Default Services under the Service Groups section like Ping and rename it to “Ping Group” or “Group: Ping”, etc. to denote that it is in fact a group, which actually includes both Ping 0 (ICMP - reply) and Ping 8 (ICMP - request) rather than a single Service Object, e.g. Ping 8 (ICMP - request).

When …
LVL 32

Author Comment

by:Blue Street Tech
New update: SonicWALL just got back to me and is handling this based on the amount of affected user reports. It missed the 5.9 release but is schedule to be included for the subsequent release.

Expert Comment

by:Peter Wilson
Very helpful. Thank you!
This article is in response to a question here at Experts Exchange. The Original Poster (OP) requires a utility that will accept a list of IP addresses as input, PING each of the IP addresses in the list, and send an email via SMTP to a support group when the PING is not successful on an IP address.

The method presented in this article requires AutoHotkey, an excellent (free!) programming/scripting language. The quick explanation for installing AutoHotkey is to visit its website and click the big blue Download button. A more comprehensive explanation is to read my EE article, AutoHotkey - Getting Started. After installation, AutoHotkey will own the AHK file type, supporting the solution discussed in the remainder of this article.

The utility takes as input a plain text file with each IP address on a separate line, such as:

The utility reads the file with the list of IP addresses and PINGs each one. It redirects the output of the PING command to a text file (via the command line ">" operator). It then looks for the five most common PING errors anywhere in the PING output, namely:

Destination Host Unreachable
Ping request could not find host
Request Timed Out
TTL Expired in Transit
Unknown Host

If the utility finds any of these, it sends an email via SMTP with PING Error Notification as the Subject and with an email Body
LVL 28

Expert Comment

by:Fred Marshall
Hi Joe,

For what it may be worth:
Here is a .bat file code that I've been running for some time.  It includes a method to adjust the ping interval - assuming one would like to ping rapidly.  Also, it skips single failed pings (which happen a lot in some situations but aren't a "failure") -  in favor of contiguous failures of a specified number.
Then, if there's a failure, it logs a trace route so one might find where the failure occurred.
"Single ping delay" is based on a workstation-specific empirical number derived from my article on delay times:

SET drive_letter=%1
IF "%1"=="" (SET drive_letter=c:)
echo Drive letter = %drive_letter%
REM ***************************SETUP***********************
SET Machine=%2
IF "%2"=="" (SET Machine=
echo Machine = %Machine%
SET testname=%~n0
echo %testname%
SET /a faillimit=3
SET pinginterval=750
SET pingtimeout=100
SET single_ping_delay=28
REM ***************No changes below*****
SET /a pingdelays=%pinginterval%/%single_ping_delay%
@Echo pingdelays = %pingdelays%
SET fileloc=%drive_letter%\Users\public\probes\ping
SET pinglog=%fileloc%\%testname%_pinglog.txt
SET tracelog=%fileloc%\%testname%_tracelog.txt
SET pingtemp=%fileloc%\%testname%_pingtemp.txt
REM testname_temptxt.txt was unused
SET temptxt=%fileloc%\%testname%_temptxt.txt
REM **************************END SETUP********************
cd \
cd \
md users
cd users
md public
cd public
md probes
cd probes
md ping
cd ping

REM initialize counts and limits
SET /a pingcount=0
REM Zeros the contiguous ping failure count
SET /a failcount=0
REM Initializing TRACE then return to :PING
goto :TRACE

REM Add original tracelog to the end of new temptxt
type %tracelog% >> %temptxt%  

REM Replace tracelog with new temptxt
type %temptxt% > %tracelog%

REM echo %time%
REM Delay between pings using ping -w [blank]
for /L %%a In (0 1 %pingdelays%) do (
ping -n 1 -w > nul
REM ran ping delay
REM @ECHO add ping output to %pingtemp%
ping -w %pingtimeout% -n 1 %Machine% >%pingtemp%
REM ran ping

REM @ECHO Find "reply" and reset fail counter
(find /I "reply"   %pingtemp%>%pinglog%) && (set /a failcount=0 & goto :PING)

REM @ECHO Finding "request timed out" and increment fail counter
(find /I "request" %pingtemp%>%pinglog%) && set /a failcount=%failcount%+1

REM @ECHO Finding "unreachable" and increment fail counter
(find /I "unreachable" %pingtemp%>%pinglog%) && set /a failcount=%failcount%+1

REM @ECHO Check failcount
REM if %failcount% geq 1 echo failcount %failcount% Pings have failed  %date% %time%
if %failcount% geq 2 echo failcount %failcount% Pings have failed  %date% %time%>>%temptxt%
if %failcount% geq %faillimit% goto :TRACE
goto :PING


REM @ECHO Reset failcount to zero
REM @ECHO failcount %failcount% Pings have failed - Starting trace route
set /a failcount=0

ECHO Trace Started %testname% %DATE% %TIME%

REM Overwrite start to temptxt
@ECHO Trace Started %testname% %DATE% %TIME% > %temptxt%

REM Append trace to temptxt
TRACERT -d -h 30 %machine% >>%temptxt%

REM Append Ended to temptxt
@ECHO **Trace ended %DATE% %TIME% %testname% >> %temptxt%
@ECHO. >> %temptxt%
@ECHO Trace ended %testname% %DATE% %TIME%

REM This GOTO cuts out the pathping

ECHO pathping
@ECHO %DATE%>>%temptxt%
@ECHO %TIME%>>%temptxt%
pathping %machine% >>%temptxt%
REM ECHO Trace ended >>%temptxt%
ECHO pathping ended
@ECHO %DATE%>>%temptxt%
@ECHO %TIME%>>%temptxt%



REM Program will loop until CTRL+C is pressed or window is closed.


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LVL 67

Author Comment

by:Joe Winograd
Hi Fred,
Thanks for sharing your script! Always a pleasure when members provide excellent feedback on articles and videos here at EE. Thanks, too, for the link to your article on delay times — reading it is now on my to-do list. :)  Regards, Joe


There are many applications where some computing systems need have their system clocks running synchronized within a small margin and eventually need to be in sync with the global time.

There are different solutions for this, i.e. the W32time service on Windows machines some more OS specific solutions. One of the most widespread solutions for this is the Network Time Protocol, short NTP. It is around for a long time (published in September 1985), and implementations of the protocol exist for various operating systems, i.e.







Besides of that there's the source code for the NTP client available in
C, Perl, Python, Ruby, and TCL for the harder kind of users. There's even an implementation in Java (SNTP only). This wide spread system base and the long history and development of NTP has led to a mature and very stable product.

Background - What does NTP, and what's SNTP ?

As lined out before, NTP is a background service that synchronizes the system clock with the clock of another, remote system. NTP does that by fine-tuning the system clock ticks to drive it smoothly into sync with the time master's clock. Afterwards it keeps it following the master's clock as close as possible by constantly monitoring the time diff and retune the …

Expert Comment

Interesting article! Typical Microsoft, reinventing the wheel with something overly complicated, which doesn't quite work!

I am interested to find out more about what you mean by

In rare cases the windows installers fail to disable the W32time service. This results in two services manipulating the system clock, which leads to very interesting (and disgusting) results. If NTP on Windows gives weird results, first check if the W32time service is disabled.

Sounds very much like a problem I am experiencing but cannot nail down.
LVL 14

Author Comment

Thank you for the positive feedback. You might also give me my first "Yes" in the feedback corner at the end of the article if you feel the urge :-)

To your question:

Since the problems arising from two services manipulating the system clock are obvious, the installer of the Windows port tries to do what's needed: Stop W32time and disable it (it's set for automatic start at system boot by default).

Sometimes the installer fails to do that, leaving W32time active and on "autostart at boot" - probably due to permissions problems on the specific system. To correct that, all you have to do is to run services.msc, find the Windows time keeper service, stop it, and set it to "Disabled" in its options dialog.
Hope that helps ...
This article is geared towards shedding more light on the underlying process in the election of a Root Bridge in a spanning tree instance, an issue that was raised in this question. I tried to break it down as much as possible for better understanding.

I hope this helps someone!

Root Bridge Election 1
Understanding might be helped if we use this chart:
    OPQR STUV WXYZ (let's call these columns)
A = 0013.8039.9500
B = 0013.80d7.d580
C = 0013.8030.5e80
D = 0013.80c7.9700

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All MACs, in this example, start with 0013.80xx.xxxx, so columns O through T are the same. Based on the above values, all 4 switches are made by the same manufacturer, in this case, by Cisco. See for information about all manufacturers.

Hex number range
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F, with 0 being the least and F being the highest

The addresses start to change from column U. 3 is the lowest number in this column but 2 devices A and C have 3 in that column. This eliminates B and D as candidates for lowest MAC address.

0 is the lowest number in column V; we don't have to proceed since there is no tie any more.

C has the lowest MAC Address. Arranging the switches from lowest mac to highest mac, we will have
C = 0013.8030.5e80
A = 0013.8039.9500
D = 0013.80c7.9700 (C is lower than D in column U)
B = 0013.80d7.d580

Open in new window

LVL 25

Expert Comment

Only two things I would note.

You write
"The default rule for a root bridge if all devices have default priority (33768) is that the oldest device becomes the root bridge"

You correctly say 32768 later, but just so there's not confusion I would correct that mistype.

Also, I would note that what you are describing is PVST.  802.1D, CST, is a single STP instance per device, NOT per vlan.  standards based doesn't do per vlan.  The closest is MST.  PVST is Cisco specific.
LVL 18

Author Comment

Yes, the 33768 was a typo
Thanks for the observation.
Some time ago I was asked to set up a web portal PC to put at our entrance. When customers arrive, they could see a webpage 'promoting' our company. So I tried to set up a windows 7 PC as a kiosk PC..........

I will spare you all the annoyances I encountered when trying to achieve that. Finally, I had a kiosk running (sort of) and was thinking that there might be an easier way. A way where I could take any random machine, plug a USB in it (or slide a CD in) and it would work.

After some searching I came across webconverger. That looked nice and is working perfectly for me now. The only thing was that explanations were not straightforward and at some times incomplete, resulting in having to ask my friend Google to help me out a lot. Once it is clear how to set it up it's easy, but before you get there (especially when you're not a Linux guru, which I'm not).

That's why I'm putting those steps here so you can set it up fairly simple and fast without having to figure everything out as you go.

So here we go.

1. Install up a Linux machine for building the boot image

We'll need this machine so we can build the boot image(s). This is fairly simple, we can just use all the default setting. I chose a Debian distribution for this because the webconverger is Debian based. I won't go in to much detail here because this is straightforward.

I downloaded a minimal CD installation …
What’s a web proxy server?

A proxy server is a server that goes between clients and web servers, used in corporate to enforce corporate browsing policy and ensure security. Proxy servers are commonly used in three modes.

A)    Forward proxy

Forward proxy is the most commonly used type of proxy servers. Clients from intranet request access the web server in internet through a forward proxy server. Proxy can be used to filter clients from accessing illegitimate and malicious web contents.

Advantages of forward proxies are

     1)     Enhanced privacy and security
     2)     Increased performance because of caching
     3)     Reduce internet bandwidth usage
     4)     Enforce corporate internet policies using ACL’s
     5)     Anti-malware and Anti-virus infections

 Forward proxy Arch
    B)    Reverse proxy

Reverse proxy is commonly used in web farms. The response to the client is returned as if it came directly from the proxy server. Advantages of reverse proxy in server farm are as below.

     1)     Load balancing of web servers
     2)     Caching
     3)     Compression
     4)     Firewall
     5)     SSL offloading
 Reverse proxy Arch
     C)    Transparent proxy

A transparent proxy server is a proxy server configured in such a way that no client side (browser side) configuration is required. The www requests are intercepted at network level by making used of …
Hi Guys

After a whole weekend getting wake on lan over the internet working, I thought I would share the experience.

Your firewall has to have a port forward for port 9 udp to your local broadcast x.x.x.255 but if that doesnt work, do it to a specific ip address. That's bacause a lot of routers dont allow direct broadcast due to its use in ddos attacks and other attacks.

Also note I had to port forward  7 udp as well.

My router (a draytek 2820) allows broadcast but my friends router (tp-link 1043dn) didn't. That's how I found out about direct broadcast not working on a lot of consumer level routers. Although, I also found out if the tp-link was re-flashed with openwrt or dd-wrt it would work.

If your router is wol capable from telnet or ssh you can do a wol up mac_address command. If the machine at the hardware address is configured for wake on lan it will wake up from sleep or hibernate as a test from the router. So if the magic packets hit the external ip address and port 7 and 9 udp are opened through the firewall wol over the internet will work.

Wake on lan is normally configured through the bios or the external bios if the nic is a pci/pci-e add-in card. If it isn't in the bios in windows go to the properties of the nic and you will find wake on lan settings in there. Some newer wake on lan have a security device called secure on.

The main problem I found is an arp cache error where the machine to be woken is only in the arp cache for 5 or so …
Lets look at the default installation and configuration of FreeProxy 4.10

1. FreeProxy 4.10 Application - Can be downloaded here
2. Ensure that you disable the windows firewall on the box
3. Ensure that ICMP is enabled on the box so you can ping it
4. Note that IP of the machine that you are installing the application on as this will be used as the proxy server in your users, internet explorer settings.
5. And ensure that the standard port 8080 is open on your Modem or Router for HTTP traffic

1. FreeProxy Knowledge Base

1. After Downloading the application, double click on the setup.exe
2. You will now see the following welcome screen click next
 Welcome Screen3. Next you will have to accept the License Agreement so click "I accept the agreement" and click next
 License Agreement4. Next screen would ask you where you want to install the application, just leave as default and click next.
 Application Install Location5. On the following screen you can select where you want the setup to create the program's file shortcut. Leave the default setting and click next
 Shortcut Location6. In the next window, click Install and wait for the installation to complete
 Ready to Install7. Now you will get the following Setup Information Window click next
 FreeProxy Setup8. On the last window below click finish

1. Open FreeProxy Control Centre by clicking on the icon in your start menu
 FreeProxy Control Centre Icon
LVL 10

Expert Comment

by:Scott Thomson
I'm installing and testing this tonight.. no more roomies stealing my data ^_^
What is IRC?
IRC (Internet Relay Chat) is a form of communication between multiple users. It is available freely to anyone with inernet access. IRC is a great way to communicate with others e.g. There is an IRC channel for Ubuntu Linux, which is for either asking for help with something Ubuntu related, or just generally talking about Ubuntu (there are many IRC networks, such as IRCNet, EFNet, Undernet, and you would have to be connected to the right network to have access to that channel). But, it's not just for that, it can also be a place to meet friends who have similar interests, which may really help you in the fututre. Here you will learn the basics of IRC.

An IRC client is a software applications that will allow you to access the wide variety of channels and servers around the world. There are many clients you can use to use to connect to IRC servers, like mIRC, XChat and ChatZilla (FireFox plugin). These are the most widely know clients, and are freely available from their respective websites.

Servers are the place you will connect to, so that you are able to join a channel on that server, an example of server is . Once you have connected to a server, you will be able to join one of the channels on the server. To connect to a server, use /server <server hostname/IP>:<port> , although the port is usually not needed, as most IRC servers host on port 6667, which is the default port that …

Author Comment

evilrix, thanks for that, I haven't been at home for a while, so I wasn't able to make the suggested changes.
I was recently sitting at a desk at work with one of my colleagues and needed some information on my home computer. He watched as I turned on my home computer, established a remote session into it, got the information I needed and then shut it down again (I don't believe in leaving the computer turned on and wasting power).

"So that was interesting," said my colleague. "How did you set that up?"

The first thing to know about waking up your computer over the Internet is that not all home firewall/routers are going to be able to do it. Check the specs of your device. Along with the usual things like port forwarding, it needs to support static ARP entries. If it can, it's relatively straightforward.

First of all, set a static IP address on your target machine. Then go into the properties of the network card and enable Wake on LAN if it is not already enabled (It's usually enabled by default). You may have to enable Wake on LAN in the BIOS as well. Record the MAC address of your machine as you will need this to wake it (you can get this at the command prompt with an ipconfig /all ).

Next, you need to register the static IP address of your machine in the ARP table of your router. This is the part that some firewall/router devices targeting the home market are not going to be able to do. You will need to refer to your devices manual or support site to determine how to do this. You may not be able to do this while the network interface you are registering is connected to…
The DSL Parameters part of this article is valid and can be considered with any brand of internet router and modem (Dlink, 3com, Alcatel, Usrobotics, Parks), by accessing the configuration interface available by the manufacturer eg: ou

The Authentication and Logs part is valid for any modem that use PPPoe and/or PPPoa configured on Routed mode only, considering that the authentication and logs for the modems on Bridge mode are made by the hardware or software dialer.

The DSL parameters are responsible for the quality of a xDSL connection. If these parameters are not under certain levels, almost always the connection will suffer performance losses, caused by unexpected errors and packet retransmission, and the final effect on the user is the evident connection slow down.

Another often fact is when these parameters are the main reason for link instability, because the connection keeps on dropping and reestablishing. A physical explanation may be found after checking the cabling system. Bad connections, old wires, UV damaged on weather exposed cables, rusted connectors and others.

The carriers and xDSL operator technician may simply say that your line is Qualified or NOT Qualified when noise or instability is affecting the line signal.

Let’s explain the most important parameters.

SNR Margin: (Signal Noise Relation) – It’s the difference measured in dB between the signal and the noise.
Means that if the difference …
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by:Keith Alabaster
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by:Eric AKA Netminder

Congratulations! Your article has been published.

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This article describes how to silently install Adobe Reader on multiple workstations, customize the installation options (accept EULA, remove desktop shortcut etc) using the Adobe Customization Wizard and install Adobe Reader font packs and updates. Adobe Reader will be deployed to workstations using a batch file “Install Adobe Reader.cmd” (example at the end of the article).

Lots of articles cover some of the steps.  I thought it might be helpful for others to have all the information in one place.  Feedback and comments are welcome.

Download Adobe Reader MSI, language packs and updates
First you will need to download the Adobe Reader MSI (setup) files, font packs and updates you want to install. In this example I’m installing Adobe Reader 9.3.0, Japanese Font Pack, Korean Font Pack, Chinese Traditional Font Pack and Adobe Reader 9.3.1, 9.3.2, 9.3.3 updates.

Adobe Reader
Adobe Reader 9.3
Adobe Reader 9.3.1 Update
Adobe Reader 9.3.2 Update etc
Adobe Reader Font Packs

Adobe Reader Customization Wizard
The Adobe Reader Customization Wizard is a utility provided by Adobe to help customize the installation of Adobe products. The …
You need passwords for many websites and you know that it's unwise to use the same password everywhere.  You have also heard that it's important to use "strong" passwords -- but they can be hard to remember.  This article describes several options that will let you use, and easily remember, a hard-to-crack password that is different for every website where you login.


Some network security folks go overboard when they talk to users about passwords.  For instance, we hear "It must be 14 characters long" Oh, puleeeezzze!  Nobody is going to remember a 14-character password, let alone the dolts that you need to be talking to about passwords.

When you set an "impossible" criterion for a strong password, guess what?  The user will invariably write it on a post-it note and stick it to his monitor.  Then, when caught and reprimanded for doing that, he'll use his name and address -- something that he might not forget.

Both scenarios are much more dangerous than letting the user select a "weaker" password that meets reasonably-sound complexity policies.  

We also hear miscellaneous advice that sounds good, but is meaningless... "Never start your password with a digit -- they are much easier to crack (10 rather than 42 options)."  I don't know what cracking system that adviser is using, but I am certain that no log-in system on earth comes back with...

    "Incorrect login: Only the first character is correct."

Nope. …
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by:Michel Plungjan
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Nowadays I use KeePass + Google drive. There is an Android client, so I have access on my phone.
I imagine hoaxes have been around since people learned to speak, scams since bartering, chain letters since Pony Express, spam and embedded viruses since email was invented in 1971. Still all those things are alive and well today despite many technological advancements. Nowadays it is often a package deal, cutesy inspirational emails that sign you up for spam and/or contain an embedded virus.

There are 4 primary reasons you don’t want to forward this stuff to people

Many emails designed to make you want to forward them are merely mailing list companies attempting to fish for valid email addresses that they can then sell to spammers. They often contain small hidden scripts that add a mailing list company’s email address in the Blind Carbon Copy (BCC) when you forward the cute picture or inspirational message onto all your friends. Basically you are signing your friends up for spam when you forward them this stuff.
2. Viruses
Picture files such as jpg and gif are very common transports for viruses and spyware. Many links included in these messages go to infected sites that load spyware onto the recipient’s machine. Recent studies show that spyware and viruses in the US cost businesses and consumers over $7 Billion ($7,000,000,000) a year.
3. Storage Space
You might not think 5 MB of pictures is very much, but if you send that to 10 people that is 50 MB, and they send it to 10

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by:My name is Mud
Where is the forwarding button in this thing??? I want to warn my friends... If not, they might die!!! HALP!!!
These days, it seems like everyone wants to stay connected. Think about it. We have our social networks, our smart phones, and dozens of our “friends” to keep in touch with. I’ll admit. I just have to stay connected. I have Facebook for my college buddies, I tweet on Twitter to get my daily news, I’m LinkedIn to build my  professional network, and you can find out where I’ve been each day on FourSquare. Oh yeah, I’m also on Digg, Delicious, Flickr,, Posterous, Qik, Stickam and Tumblr. Okay, okay, I’m kind of addicted. Don’t judge me.  :)  

But is there a price to pay for staying “connected?” Checking the most recent statistics, Facebook has more than 500 million active users, of which 50 percent log in daily. The average user has 130 “friends” — can you even name 50 of your friends? Recently, concerns over information privacy have put Facebook under fire by technology activists, the government, and even the Facebook community.

With our privacy at risk, it’s important to reflect on the networks we’re connecting to, the people we’re connecting with, the information we’re sharing, and the risks we’re accepting with membership. Obviously, the easiest and full-proof solution to prevent identity theft or information loss from social networks is to not use them altogether. C’mon, what’s the fun in that? Here are a few other options for protecting your data that I’ve read (and don’t agree with):

I don’t accept “friend” requests.
Then you’ve completely missed …
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by:Eric AKA Netminder

Congratulations! Your article has been published, has been selected as a Community Pick, and has been awarded EE-Approved status.

We look forward to reading more from you; this is a very good read!


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Social networking sites such as Facebook have become an immensely popular way to connect with friends, coworkers, and relatives on the internet.  Most are very user-friendly and provide methods to e-mail, chat, share pictures and videos, and even search for long-lost friends.  While it is very fun to be able to share all of your interests, information, and pictures with your friends, it is important to note that your friends are not the only ones with access to this information.

Most sites include in the terms of use the fact that all information entered into the website is the property of the website, so whatever you put on your Facebook can be sent, by Facebook, to companies for advertising purposes.  Facebook does have a security settings panel that allows you to control which users have access to what information, but many people are woefully ignorant of these settings and assume that they are safe.  

It only takes a few minutes to go into the security settings and switch everything so that only your friends can view your information.  Companies should not be given free reign over users’ information and perhaps social networking sites are doing something about this, but until then it is strongly recommended to be very conservative with how you share your data.  

Also, certain information such as your address, your phone number, your birthday, etc., should not be put on the website.  This is simply because even with the security measures in place, you can really …
How would you tell what computer was using up all of your Internet bandwidth ?

If you cannot answer this question, this article is for you.  

The solutions below should work with just about anything using established standards rather than proprietary software. Some commercial firewall appliances will already tell you this info. For this Article, I do refer to Sonicwall, but the suggestions will provide valuable information regardless. The resulting information is extremely valuable to have when there are problems (either real, or just perceived by your users).

Now, if budget was not a problem and there was a pressing need to just purchase something, I would probably purchase the PRTG Network Monitor ($380) or Solarwinds Orion NPM ($2475) because they will work with just about anything and aren't tied to Sonicwall.  They can even collect usage from packet sniffing so will work with ANYTHING.  

The quick answer may be able to just download and configure Passler PRTG trial or free version or AdvancedRM to get what you need, if needed "now".  Both of these utilities rely on SNMP.  PRTG also can collect info a few different ways and is more versatile and comprehensive.  Free version is limited to 10 sensors but the commercial version isn't that expensive compared to enterprise consoles.  If you enable the SNMP services on each of the servers and user systems as well as the Sonicwall, you can compare charts and get what you need.  

Being budget concious, what I …
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by:J Spoor
Overall a really good document !

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by:Kimberley from Paessler
Hi cybervzhn_tech,

Yes, a good article!  I wonder if you could update the parts about PRTG, since there's been a significant change in our licensing since 2010.  In particular, the 100-sensor licence which was $380 is now free!  The first paid license is now the 500-sensor license ($1600).  Could you please update the price from $380 to $1600, and then later in the article, where you talk about 10 free sensors, update this part to 100 sensors?


Kimberley (from Paessler)
Ever wondered why you had to use DHCP options (dhcp opt 60, 66 or 67) in order to use PXE?
Well, you don't!
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One side effect of having a PXE service (whether running on the same host as the DHCP service, thus requiring Dhcp Opt 60 to be set to PXEClient or on another host) is that you should NOT set DHCP opt 66 and 67.
When using a PXEService, dhcp options 66 and 67 are sent to the PXE clients by the PXE service itself, not by DHCP service.
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Of course, if your clients and servers are not on the same subnets, you need to set some kind of dhcp-relay (aka ip-helper or dhcp-forwarder) so that the dhcp broadcasts sent by your PXE clients are forwarded to the dhcp server on another subnet.
If your PXE server is not your dhcp server and is not in the same subnet as the PXE clients, then, in addition not to have any dhcp option 60 set to "PXEClient", you also must add the IP address of the PXE server to the list of IP addresses that get the dhcp broadcasts. In the Cisco world, it means adding the address of the PXE server to  "ip-helper" addresses on your routers or (Layer 3) switches. In that case, you would have both the DHCP server and PXE server(s) in ip-helper list of addresses






Networking is the process of connecting computing devices, peripherals and terminals together through a system that uses wiring, cabling or radio waves that enable their users to communicate, share information and interact over distances. Often associated are issues regarding operating systems, hardware and equipment, cloud and virtual networking, protocols, architecture, storage and management.