Networking is the process of connecting computing devices, peripherals and terminals together through a system that uses wiring, cabling or radio waves that enable their users to communicate, share information and interact over distances. Often associated are issues regarding operating systems, hardware and equipment, cloud and virtual networking, protocols, architecture, storage and management.

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Why would a private AWS subnet have an ENI target for its default route instead of a NAT Gateway of IGW?

Route table from private subnet
Our organization has deployed couples of Cisco 2960x switches stacked with Flexstack plus. Whenever our end users and application team experiencing slowness on the application, they always blame the root cause is related to Cisco switches network devices. Our question is what command can we use on the switches which can provide evidence/reports to prove that the bottleneck or the root cause of the slowness is not related to the Cisco network switches (e.g. CPU, interface utilization, errors etc.) ? Not sure if there is any guideline from Cisco as far as network switches performance is concerned?

Thank you for your kind advice in advance.

The office has a peer-to-peer network.
A Windows 10 Pro workstation is set up as a file server.
Up to now the server access has been wide open.
We are introducing a new workstation as file server.
We have decided to Enable Password Protected Sharing AND to provide the credentials by matching client user logons to users set up on the "file server" - that, in favor of storing Windows credentials for a server user on the client machines.

However, the owner has a laptop with an AzureAD logon.  This seems to mess up accessing the new "file server".
I've not found the magic formula for allowing him to get access.
All of the other users access just fine - but they don't have AzureAD logons - they are just non-Microsoft local users.
We are going to start migrating sbs2011 to server 2016 STD.
We are trying to backup the system state using Windows server backup utility.
we have tried running CMD Wbadmin start backupsystemstate -backuptarget:L:    we are using a external usb Drive
it will always fail with The filename, directory name, or volume label syntax is incorrect.

I also tried backing up to a network share and to a different partition on the server.

I also setup the Server Backup utility to manually backup the system state also. Still fails with same error
Does anyone have any ideas as to why this is happening or a workaround?

We also have Datto backup which uses storagecraft shadowcopy which is a service that datto uses to backup the server.

Not sure if that will stop the server backup to run. I also checked the VSS writers and they are all stable.
Primary desktop has Windows version 10.0.17763 Build 17763. Laptop on my LAN is version 10.0.17134. On each system, I have gone into "Advanced Sharing" and given complete access to both my C: and D: drives to "Everyone". However, on the laptop, within File Explorer, when I click on Network, I can see both PETER-DESKTOP and PETER-LENOVO. On the desktop, I see only PETER-DESKTOP. My suspicion is that this has to do with the different versions. I found, on the Laptop that I needed to log into PETER-DESKTOP using my Microsoft credentials rather than my local ones.

Should I move to a "local" access and away from OneDrive, etc.?

I want to be safe and protected against outside penetration, but I need to have complete and easy access among the three systems on my LAN (the third is also at version 10.0.17134.
distribute-list prefix Prefixname gateway

Can someone put an example of what the command does?

distribute-list prefix Prefixname gateway in

Thank you
IP prefix-list

Any Expert to explain what is covered in these IP prefix-list statements below:

ip prefix-list CLASSB permit ge 17

same as this :
ip prefix-list CLASSA permit le 27

Thank you
Lions Tigers Bears Oh My. Got great help from the EE Gods over the last weeks. However here we go again with a confusing anomalie that keeps reoccuring. So today this question was solved and working as of late this afternoon. It was an update to Win 7 Pro. Got the Network connected and the Network Adapter working well. My Question So I did a backup and created a restore point for safety because I had everything working.

However Win 7 Pro had two hundred plus updates. The first batch was 174. Then like 20 now it is down to batches of 5-8 most important some optional. So I started down that road an I noticed that everytime I installed the updates the driver for the Intel 82578DC GIGABIT NETWORK Connection got WIPED OUT. Let me rephrase that. The network icon is still there but the small monitor screen in the lower right corner of the status bar shows up with a BIG RED X on it. So maybe it is just breaking the connection each time.  So I had to go back in use the file Intel® Network Adapter Driver for Windows 7*

to remove the installation because …
I have a network in a small grocery store.  It is p2p and consists of a main computer running windows 10 Pro that acts as the host for the POS system.  There are 5 checkout points and one other computer that is used for management input.  All computers were new last May, and are Lenovo M720S with i5 processors.  All computers run Windows 10 Pro.

They are networked with a router and have static IP addresses listed in the router, as well as have their Ethernet cards set with static IP addresses.

All works well with the 5 checkout computers and the main host computer.  the Workstation used for management input has an issue connecting to the Main computer.  The problem computer maps to the 5 checkout computers without issue.  The workstation used for management input always maps to the 5 checkout computers, but after a restart, it often will not remap to the host computer.  The only way to get it to map  to the host computer, is to remove the static settings from the Ethernet card, let the router assign the address, then disable and re enable the Ethernet adapter.  If it is set manually to the same address as the router assigns it [the computers have their IP addresses reserved on the router], it will not connect to the host computer.  Even when the adapter is left to receive its IP address from the router, it will not map to the main computer without several tries of adding the IP and taking it away.  Using a different IP gives the same results.

The reservations are …
TL;DR DFS Namespace does not recognise the AD Site (appear as site <unknown> in mmc) that the servers reside in, so clients can get connected to the wrong site file server via drive mapping to namespace occasionally which is not ideal as it's the remote site is over VPN link and slow

Having some issues with Windows AD DFS, hope someone can help, otherwise I'm going to have to call in one of those Microsoft Incident Support and eat the cost as my customer is starting to get a little annoyed.

Have a small network with 2AD sites linked by VPN (OpenVPN via the gateway device)

2 DC in main site, 1 fileserver (2016) all Hyper V

1 DC in branch office, 1 fileserver (2012 R2) all Hyper V

The AD Sites have been created, DC's put in correct ones and subnets set up for each site

I have verified where AD thinks the servers are by nltest successfully

I have successfully set up the DSR Namespace and Replication between the two servers which is working away merrily, but I have a strange issue. The clients have mapped drives to \\mydomain.local\files\relevant share but if I check the DFS on the properties of the drive sometimes they are using the remote fileserver and not the local one, which they should get connected to because of the site they are local to via the subnet as far as I am aware.

I noticed that in the DFS mmc the two file servers are in site <unknown> I think this is where the problem lies. I tried creating a new namespace but the …
HP networking VLANs - simple layer 2 issue - data and voice - HP 1820Poe switch.

default VLAN 1 and create VLAN 50.

Untag ports 1-12 (poe ports) on VLAN 1 and Tagged VLAN 50

In Port 18 - VOIP phone system
In Port 21 - Sonicwall DMZ with DHCP configured
In Port 23 - Windows 2012 Server with DHCP configured

Problem is sometimes the PCs with get a DHCP from VLAN 50 and thus not authenticate into Active Directory and phones will get a DHCP from Windows server.  Not always but they had a power outage today and when things booted up, nothing worked.

Question is - what am I doing wrong?  How should ports 18, 21 and 23 be tagged/untagged?  And are ports 1-12 programmed correctly.  Not all but normally connections are switch port to phone ethernet and 2nd phone ethernet to PC.  Some phones have their own connection into switch (2 ports in an office so no daisy chain)

(Network was existing and they upgraded phone system and vendor sold them a VOIP system)

These switches are low end and have a weird type of "trunking" mode where you have to group ports into a trunk.  In the Cisco world, I would simply trunk all ports and everything would work but I tried that here and it did not work at all.

Thanks for any input.
Has anyone run into scanning issues with the Xerox Phaser 3635MFP.   This was working just fine up 2 about 2 weeks ago.   I changed the DNS settings on the DC to reflect the correct DNS and the scanner has lost its ability to scan to folder.  

Current setting

IP local static
class c subnet gateway <-- DC secondary DNS akternate DNS

File repository setting

NAME (Customer name)
Protocol SMB
hostname file server name no \\ or //
share scanned (Name of folder) no \\ //
login domain\administrator
domain admin pw

the only thing that was changed was the DNS which I updated on the scanner as well.

The folder has system full access as far as permissions.

Getting a TLS error on a particular web site when connecting via a Fortinet VPN connection. Error is "Can't connect securely to this page. This might be because the site uses outdated or unsafe TLS security settings".

The site works fine when connecting from the local LAN.
One of my clients wants to hard wire an ethernet connection to his other house. The houses are about 40 feet apart, and there is a 2ft wide path I will have to go through to get to the other house.

I know point to point wireless is an option, but my client insists on getting a wired connection. This is my first job wiring outside, so I'm brainstorming on how I can get it done. Any suggestions?

Thank you!
I have encountered a laptop with a Microsoft login (I guess).  It's not typical of any of the other computers on the peer-to-peer network.
The login is AzureAD\Username - something I've never seen before.
Anyway, I'm trying to add a local user to the computer.
When I've done that, I have to select Other User.
It comes up asking for email address which is NOT what I used to set up the user PLUS Password.
It says: Sign in to: Your work or school account which is NOT what I used to set up the user.

If I click on other options and select the 10-key image, I get:
Username and PIN.
But I didn't set up with a PIN, only a password.

So, I seem to be at an impasse.

What's going on here?
two NICsHi,
  I have a New Server with SuperMicro X11DPi-N Motherboard that came with two Gigabyte network adapter cards.
 My intention is to install Windows Server 2019, add HyperV role and create two virtual Machines - Domain Controller running W2019 and App Server running also W2019.
 Having said that, I just like to use one network adapter card unless there are benefits of connecting both NICs (getting two separate IP local addresses) to the switch.
 I heard of NIC Teaming. Would I benefit from it?
 If yes, how do you do that?

Hello fellow Experts Exchange members:

I request assistance with a network issue!

I have a site with four Cisco SG300-28P 28-port GB PoE managed switches.

The switches are configured as follows:
      Management VLAN: 1 (unchanged from default)
      Other VLANs: office, voice*, guest (not all VLANs are configured on all switches)
      Ports 27 and 28 on each switch connect to other switches.
*The voice VLAN is just named Voice and not configured as a "Voice VLAN".

From the top downwards, the switches have the following IP addresses (last octets shown only):
      254, 253, 252, 251, 250

Port 28 on 254 is connected to port 27 on 253, port 28 on 253 is connected to port 27 on 252, etc.

The issue appears to be with the switch that has the IP 251.

With all cables connected, I can access the web interface and ping the switch with IP 254 from a different subnet and via a port modified to use only VLAN 1 (untagged) on that switch.

I cannot access the web interface or ping any of the other switches.

If I remove the cable connecting 251 with 252, I can access the web interfaces and ping the switches with IP 254, 253, and 252.

If I connect the cable on port 28 of 252 to port 27 of 250 (bypassing 251), I can access the web interface and ping the switch with IP 250 (along with all the other switches except 251).

If I connect all of the cables and connect a laptop to a port modified to use only VLAN 1 (untagged) on the switch with IP 250, I can access the web …
What should my cname record be for external autodiscovery with EXCHANGE 2013?
Network Solutions gives these options..
1) alias
2) TTL
3) Other Host

Host should be or And what should be the alias?

Everything Exchange admin shows
I currently have four locations connected over an MPLS.  I recently replaced both DCs a the corporate office with two 2019 servers.  Since the change computers at each location are no longer able to see any other workstations/servers on the network.  I have a mix of WIN7 and 10 workstations.  If this is related to disabling SMB1 is there a workaround to emulate the same sort of browsing functionality?
Once you've used up all your private RFC 1918 space, are there certain non RFC 1918 IP blocks that are best practice to use for internal addressing?
Are there any known tools like advanced IP scanner I can use to scan the network and report OS?  I want to do a workstation survey and find out which machines currently on the network I am connected to are running Windows 7.
In several of our WSE 2012 R2 networks, one or more of the workstations are laptops, which serve dual purposes.  They function as a network workstation on the Essentials domain office network.  In that environment, the laptops are set up with the standard Essentials configuration (e.g., DNS service provided by the Essentials server, which has a fixed IP address, etc.).  That works fine until the second laptop purpose is invoked.

The management personnel that have laptop workstations also need to use them when they travel.  When used this way, they primarily connect to wireless networks.  Unlike the office Essentials domain network, when traveling, the laptops obtain everything (including DNS) from the wireless router in each location.  The first problem we encountered was that the traveling laptop could not access the Internet, although it was connected to the wireless network with strong signal strength.  Apparently the laptop was trying to reach the fixed IP address of the domain server, which of course was nowhere to be found.  Without working DNS, the laptop was unable to reach any destination on the Internet (such as,, etc.).  The only way we were able to work around this was to manually change the DNS source setting from "always obtain DNS" from the server to having DNS automatically assigned by the wireless router.

On the flip side, when the laptops returned home to the WSE domain office network, they experienced frequent problems with mapped …
I'm running Windows 10 Pro version 1803 on a Dell Latitude 6330.  WiFi is disabled.  The WiFi switch in Settings is set to "Off".  Turn WiFi back on is set to "Manually".  I cannot get the switch to stay set on "On".  The Network Connection icon in the system tray says WiFi Turned off.  I have tried rebooting, turning the PC off and on, removing the battery.  So far I can't find a fix.  Ethernet is the only way I can connect to the internet.  Can someone recommend a fix?
I have a three hosts on a private IP space and I want to have a 1:1 NAT to present each to the Internet. I'm familiar with PAN and Cisco firewalls, but the AWS lingo I find confusing for what should be such a simple thing. I've been settup up NATs forever. Anyhow.. since the VPC and the hosts are already setup in AWS, at this point do I just need to create the NAT gateway? And then do I need to add routes to the subnets outside? If someone could explain in terms a traditional network person would understand - I'd much appreciate it.
I have two Sophos SG 230's that are configured for HA.  I have the LAN Port on the Master going to Switch 1.  I have the LAN Port on the Slave going to Switch 1.  I would like to add another LAN interface in the UTMs that I can use to connect them to Switch 2 for redundancy purposes.  

To properly do this, would I simply change interface eth0 (my current LAN interface) from "Type: Ethernet" to "Type: Bridge" and select one of the available interfaces / nics available on the UTM?






Networking is the process of connecting computing devices, peripherals and terminals together through a system that uses wiring, cabling or radio waves that enable their users to communicate, share information and interact over distances. Often associated are issues regarding operating systems, hardware and equipment, cloud and virtual networking, protocols, architecture, storage and management.