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Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. For large systems, the operating system makes sure that different programs and users running at the same time do not interfere with each other. The operating system is also responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system. Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other programs, called application programs, can run.

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hello experts

IPv4’s ARP and IPv6’s Neighbor Solicitation both map an address from one space to another. In
this respect they are similar. However, there are several differences. In what major ways do they
differ?
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Administrative Comment

by:Andrew Leniart
Hi Bain,

Welcome to Experts Exchange. To get expert help here, please use the blue "Ask a Question" button at the top of your browser when logged in. What you've done here is made a post, which is just a way of sharing information with the EE community.

I hope that's helpful.

Regards, Andrew
EE Topic Advisor
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Cloud Class® Course: CompTIA Cloud+
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Cloud Class® Course: CompTIA Cloud+

The CompTIA Cloud+ Basic training course will teach you about cloud concepts and models, data storage, networking, and network infrastructure.

Combine and Split PDF Files Free by SysTools PDF Split & Merge


combine and split pdfSysTools introduce Free PDF Split & Merge software to divide and combine multiple PDF files. This tool is compatible with all versions of PDF files and supports all Windows operating systems. It is a freeware program that can be easily downloaded from the official website in order to combine and split PDF files. Some of the benefits of the tool are given below:






                                                                         
                                                                             1- Split PDF file by page, range, even and odd page
                                                                             2- Combine multiple PDF documents without any limitation
                                                                             3- Compatible with all versions of Windows OS i.e. 10, 8.1, 8, 7,
                                                                             4- No limitation on the number of PDF files to be merged
                                                                             5- Tool is simple and easy to use


                                                                            https://www.systoolsgroup.com/pdf-split-merge.html




                                             




                                             


   
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Andy's VMware vSphere tip#25: When creating a virtual machine on VMware vSphere, always try to use the VMXNET3 network interface, which will need VMware Tools installing first! The Intel E1000 interface should only be used when installing an OS. Linux distributions often include the VMXNET3 interface by default, but you will find Windows OS does not include the VMXNET3 interface, so when installing a Windows OS, use the E1000 interface to complete the installation, install VMware Tools and then add a new interface VMXNET3, and delete the E1000 interface. Network interfaces are hot plug!

If you would like to discuss this post further please post a question to the VMware Topic area.
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Andy's VMware vSphere tip#14: Deploy the vCenter Appliance (VCSA), it has been debated in VMware circles for many years, whether to use a physical or virtual server to host vCenter Server for Windows, a virtual server is supported by VMware, as a vCenter Server. But now the vCenter Appliance (VCSA) has the same features as vCenter Server for Windows, we think it makes sense to deploy VCSA (which is a virtual appliance), it saves a Windows license, the OS does not have to be patched monthly. Many VMware Admins seem to be put off by using vCenter Server virutally, but vCenter Server is only a management server, if it is not available, Virtual Machines don't just stop! You can still connect directly to each ESXi host and manage a host if need be! There are many benefits to hosting a virtual vCenter Server, Backup and Restore, DR is easier, Higher Availability if using VMware HA, in the event a host fails, all the VMs including vCenter Server (VCSA) will be re-started on a host. There is also vCenter High Availability (HA) - (VCSA-HA).

HOW TO: Deploy and Install the VMware vCenter Server Appliance 6.5 (VCSA 6.5)

So deploy VCSA today.

If you would like to discuss this post further please post a question to the VMware Topic area.
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Andy's VMware vSphere tip#9: Use Templates. It surprises us, that many organisations waste time, cranking the handle, installing operating systems manually, by connecting an ISO, and doing next, next, next, reboot finish!

WHY!

Let vCenter Server do the heavy lifting for you, and spend some development time, creating Golden Masters for Windows 2012 R2, Windows 2016, Ubuntu 16.x etc - keep them patched and updated, create Many OS Customisations, and then when you get a service Request for a VM - sit back and Deploy from Template, which then Auto Renames the VM, Auto Joins domain, and is ready for hand over to the next team!

and you can sit back and take the pressure off.

If you have a SAN with VAAI enabled, deployment of templates will be very quick. (another TIP, do not have templates and VMs on the same datastore, create a datastore for storage of templates and datastore for isos).

https://docs.vmware.com/en/VMware-vSphere/6.5/com.vmware.vsphere.vm_admin.doc/GUID-8254CD05-CC06-491D-BA56-A773A32A8130.html

Please post a question to the VMware Topic area, if you would like to discuss this further.
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Andy's VMware vSphere tip#4: Partitions :- OS Partitions have no place in VMware vSphere or Hyper-V. So do not create a C: Partition or volume, and D: Partition or volume on the same virtual disk. We used partitions in the dark old ages of DOS, when the limits of a partition were 32MB, so we had to create multiple partitions on our disks, to use all the disk space.

Keep a single partition per virtual disk. e.g. create a single virtual disk for C:, if you need a D; create another virtual disk.

You will thank me in the future, because it becomes much easier to expand C: and D:, if they are on separate virtual disks. You've also got the benefit of being able to specify which datastore, these will be hosted on which is important if you have tiered storage for performance.

So in Summary do not create partitions, C: D: E: F: on the same virtual disk, you will regret it, later and then you will have to use VMware Converter, to convert your machine and remedy the situation.

https://www.experts-exchange.com/articles/31526/HOW-TO-P2V-V2V-for-FREE-VMware-vCenter-Converter-Standalone-6-2.html

Please feel free to post a question to the VMware or Virtualization topic areas to discuss this further.
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LVL 128

Author Comment

by:Andrew Hancock (VMware vExpert / EE MVE^2)
It may go away on new machines, but still will be with us a long time to come...

EE questions still being asked about Windows 2000 and Windows 2003
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LVL 104

Expert Comment

by:John
Yes, older machines will have BIOS, but new ones just UEFI and Windows 10  (or Server 2016 and beyond)

Still, we are on the same page :)
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My Recent Experiences with Linux!

As a staunch Windows OS supporter, it's been quite a few years since I've installed a Linux distro for myself to experiment with. Why? The installation process (at the time I experimented last time) was complicated and frustrating, as was just using Linux itself.

So, after reading a few questions and comments here and there, I decided it was time to give it another shot. I first downloaded and set up an Ubuntu Studio ISO in an Oracle VM Virtualbox VM. I was suitably impressed with both the installation and relative (and intuitive) ease of use.

Encouraged by that result, I decided to try another Linux distro called ChaletOS which claimed it would give newbies like me an easier transition to Linux by giving me a familiar GUI interface to Windows 7. Again, I wasn't disappointed. Linux distros have indeed come a long way since I last experimented.

Installation was an absolute breeze and puts both Windows 7 and Windows 10 installers to shame! Ease of use? Fantastic, especially with the ChaletOS build. I think I'm starting to understand why Linux tends to have such a 'cult' type following.

I've still got a lot to learn and experiment with, but my first impressions are nothing but positive. If you're in a similar position to me, I'd encourage you to give Linux another try. By setting up in a Virtual Machine, you have nothing to lose and potentially, much to gain.

Cheers...

Andrew
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LVL 104

Expert Comment

by:John
Interesting discussion. I always encourage people to use what they like. Businesses tend to adopt Windows and I have businesses with that.
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Expert Comment

by:noci
Some businesses do, other use other software that requires yet other systems.
My daily bread comes from running OpenVMS environments.( 99.999+ uptime requirement RTO = 15minutes max total per year planned or unplanned).  Quite different specs. And some Unix clusters almost the same requirements, slightly more relaxes max 1 hour of outage a year, that predict arrival times of busses & light rail trains at  (~60,000) stops with a continous update from vehicles. with announcements on each stop for the next 3 vehicles.
(and about 6 stops ahead of a vehicle).   Somehow windows is not even considered to be remotely an option for those environments.
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vSphere 5.5 and vSAN 5.5 End of General Support Reminder
Dear Valued Customer,

We would like to remind you that the End of General Support (EOGS) for VMware vSphere® 5.5 and vSAN™ 5.5 is September 19, 2018.
•      To maintain your full level of Support and Subscription Services, VMware recommends upgrading to vSphere 6.5. Note that by upgrading to vSphere 6.5 you not only get all the latest capabilities of vSphere but also the latest vSAN release and capabilities.
•      vCloud Suite 5 and vSphere with Operations Management™ (vSOM) customers running vSphere 5.5 are also recommended to upgrade to vSphere 6.5.
For more information on the benefits of upgrading and how to upgrade, visit the VMware vSphere Upgrade Center. VMware has extended general support for vSphere 6.5 to a full five years from date of release, which will end on November 15, 2021.

If you require assistance upgrading to a newer version of vSphere, VMware's vSphere Upgrade Service is available. This service delivers a comprehensive guide to upgrading your virtual infrastructure including recommendations for planning and testing the upgrade, the actual upgrade itself, validation guidance, and rollback procedures. For more information, contact your VMware account team, VMware Partner, or visit VMware Professional Services.

If you are unable to upgrade from vSphere 5.5 before EOGS and are active on Support and Subscription Services, you may purchase Extended Support in one-year increments for up to two years …
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Author Comment

by:Andrew Hancock (VMware vExpert / EE MVE^2)
buy new hardware!
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Expert Comment

by:vibinsathyan
:) Thank you
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More on the two "villians" too. It has a nice description, not overly technical (though inevitable at times) for understanding. Crux of it is remediation is really for CPU vendors to issue firmware updates to protect against these attacks. The OS and affected vendor will "support" with their release to reduce the attack surface or make it harder to exploit.

Unfortunately, there are no software patches or operating system mitigations that can fully mitigate the impacts of the Spectre attacks and the flaws being abused. Only saving grace is browser vendors have begun updating their browsers to disable certain features which make the Spectre attack feasible via JavaScript. If really paranoid, back to basic to disable active scripting like Javascript.

https://research.kudelskisecurity.com/2018/01/04/meltdown-spectre-attacks-on-cpu-flaws/
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LVL 50

Expert Comment

by:dbrunton
I think the microcode patches will come through the system vendor, Dell, HP etc etc.  Intel will probably supply them with the patches to distribute.

As for the lawsuits that will be interesting.  Unless it can be proven that there is a significant slowdown those lawsuits will go nowhere.  And at this stage there is no real evidence of that.  The most likely candidates will be those who run VM instances in the cloud and we'll need to wait for those to occur.

It will be a pity if the lawsuits don't succeed because I'd love a new Core 2 Quad processor replacement ...
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Author Comment

by:btan
Agree. Nice.
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Cloud Class® Course: Ruby Fundamentals
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Cloud Class® Course: Ruby Fundamentals

This course will introduce you to Ruby, as well as teach you about classes, methods, variables, data structures, loops, enumerable methods, and finishing touches.

Hi! To avoid going via a OS file, I want to write my Oracle script's output directly to the OLEDBDATAAdapter system.data.datatable from Oracle OraOLEDB.Oracle.

When I send a regular SELECT...someting, it is returned fine. However, I need to do some additional tweaking after that, so I am using a procedure and some additional code in SQL to achieve this. Creating an OS-file and send the result out there, works fine. But rather than doing that, it would be much more convenient and secure to do it directly into the system.data.datatable of OLEDBDATAAdapter.

Can anyone give any advice as how to achieve this? As you probably understand, this isn't my main area of expertise :-)

Thanks for any help!

Brgds
IVer in Oslo
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LVL 64

Expert Comment

by:☠ MASQ ☠
Iver, use this link and ask a question of our Oracle experts
https://www.experts-exchange.com/askQuestion.jsp
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What’s the first thing you install—or uninstall—on a new system?
The first thing I install on a new PC system (other than OS & drivers) is usually a tie between the Chrome browser and Blizzard's Battle.net client, closely followed by Adobe Lightroom and Photoshop. On my Mac, I skip straight to Lightroom and Photoshop, since I'm happy with Safari and don't try to game much on that system (that's what the PC is for ;-)

As for uninstalling, usually nothing... My last PC was a custom build so there wasn't any junk on it and Macs are great about not having anything I don't want.
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LVL 7

Author Comment

by:Brian Matis
Yeah, definitely got to take care of all the OS and driver patches first! What do you do after all that?
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LVL 34

Expert Comment

by:Shalom Carmel
I don't install PCs for a living, and only do that for select family members: myself, children, wife and mother in law.
Everybody gets Chrome, Office and Adobe Acrobat reader.
Then for each their tools of trade. This is the list of first installations as happened during the past year.

For me:
* Virtual box, Git, JDK, Python, Jetbrains IDE, curl, whois, dig, jq, notepad++, skype, mumble and Eve Online

For my mother in law:
* OE Classic

For my wife:
* Photoshop, Invision, Premiere

For my son:
* Minecraft, Netflix

For my daughter:
* Matlab, Netflix
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What’s the first thing you install—or uninstall—on a new system?
Install - Chrome
Uninstall - Nothing.  I don't buy pre-loaded software machines; I install my own OS.
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LVL 104

Expert Comment

by:John
I do not have any issue at all with Windows 10 Pro preinstalled OEM by Lenovo. BIG HUGE waste of time to blow it away and spend a day redoing it for nothing.

Latterly only one piece of Lenovo software bit the dust (Lenovo Solution Center) which was replaced with a better piece of software. Voluntary (optional) Lenovo software need not be installed and I do not.
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LVL 12

Expert Comment

by:Maclean
It is a personal preference really in the end. It does not bug some as much as others,
One might have plenty of resources and decide that it has little to no impact on their experience.
So whether it is a waste of time depends on what one wants from their system.
Personally I prefer max performance and security. The fewer 3rd party apps or vendor apps, the better.

Lenovo is not as bad as some other firms with their own apps but has also been tapped by for example Duo due to big security vulnerabilities in software allowing hackers to bypass protection software and take over control.
Being security focused this translates into my person preferences.

In the end a full system rebuild takes me between 1.5-2 hours average including patches & configuring things plus transferring data where applicable. (Talking SSD. SATA takes more time indeed)
e.g. if I buy HP, Dell, Lenovo OEM I would first need to upgrade to Creator update, then remove optional SW, Trials, Games and more.
That update process itself takes me as long as simply having the ISO already and doing it from scratch.
That was where my point of view comes from :)
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UpdateGood morning, EE!

Today is the release of macOS High Sierra, the OS that many of us Apple geeks want on our Macs as of yesterday. It will be available for download at 1 PM EST, so make sure that you have your ducks in order before you make the switch.

Here is a short list of things to consider before upgrading:

1) Update your antivirus application and perform a full scan. What? Your Mac doesn't have an antivirus? Well, then you might be carrying malware with you to the new OS. Even if your Mac hasn't been showing the classic signs of being infected, you might be smuggling Windows viruses into your new operating system. (No, Windows viruses don't infect Macintosh computers, but that's no reason to keep them around.)

Side note: It's important to know that malware is growing for Mac with no end in sight. While some purists believe that it's still fine to run Macs without antivirus, there are more of us security guys/gals sounding the alarm that times have changed and Macs are no longer impervious. Lastly, if you use your Mac for any business related functions, you're more likely than not sharing documents with your colleagues who are using Windows systems. Meaning that you don't want to be the person who hands them a work altering piece of malware.

2) Make a Time Machine backup.

3) Manually move significant folders onto an Ext HDD in case your Time Machine backup fails at some point in the future. This extra step ensures that you're …
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LVL 7

Expert Comment

by:Brian Matis
Happy to say that my upgrade went smoothly last night!
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Here's a simple security tip: lock your computer when you're away! An unlocked work station leaves you ridiculously vulnerable and it's a simple thing to avoid.  Just get in the habit of hitting Ctrl-Alt-Del and choosing Lock every time you get up (for Windows anyway, adapt as needed for your specific OS choice).

You wouldn't leave your front door wide open when you're not at home, right? Same principle here :-)
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LVL 11

Expert Comment

by:Brandon Lyon
There was a person who used to work here who would prove that point by using unlocked computers to send a random silly email to everyone
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LVL 7

Author Comment

by:Brian Matis
@Brandon: I've also seen people get a browser extension installed that would cause Guy Fieri to start showing up on webpages they'd visit. (Note: I don't really endorse these sorts of shenanigans—it can be easy to accidentally take it too far and inadvertently do something actually malicious—but I will admit to getting a good chuckle out of them.)
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Here is a tip for faster linux software updates: make sure your software sources mirror lists are ranked and optimized. The link below explains how to do that with Arch based distros like Manjaro.

https://wiki.manjaro.org/index.php?title=Pacman_Tips#Ranking_mirrors
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Good to know - The upcoming Windows update, Redstone 3, will patch the vulnerability that enables EternalBlue exploits. Not all SMB version are that vulnerable as compared to SMBv1.
Microsoft doesn't recommend disabling SMBv2 or SMBv3 for Windows client and server operating systems. Disabling SMBv3 will deactivate encryption that provides protection from eavesdropping on untrustworthy networks. Organizations should proceed with caution when disabling either protocol as a temporary troubleshooting measure.
http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/answer/Stopping-EternalBlue-Can-the-next-Windows-10-update-help?
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SysAdmin Day is this Friday! If you have a story of a time when your technical skill and expertise saved the day comment here. You can also message us!

Looking forward to reading more of your experiences!
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Keep up with what's happening at Experts Exchange!
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Keep up with what's happening at Experts Exchange!

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A recent post by Brian Matis motivated me to make this alternate post to see what sort of reaction others might have about these recent revelations.

A recent article on The Verge claims that "The older operating system was less vulnerable that anyone expected"

Windows XP computers were mostly immune to WannaCry

Another article from the same source claims "Windows XP was ‘insignificant,’ researchers say" with regards to helping the WannaCry outbreak spread.

"Almost all WannaCry victims were running Windows 7"

Lots of folks (from their perspective) with a genuine need to keep running on Windows XP suffered a lot of grief in Tech forums as being one of the root causes of giving WannaCry a platform to spread and thrive from, yet now it appears all the criticism may have been a little premature and unjustified.

For the record, I personally don't condone anyone using unsupported operating systems and actively encourage everyone I deal with to get themselves up to date, but I am also sympathetic to those who feel they have a genuine need to do that, so also think they shouldn't be …
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LVL 31

Expert Comment

by:Thomas Zucker-Scharff
We have too many XP computers at my institution (some with only SP2) - mostly due to budgets and instrumentation.
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LVL 19

Author Comment

by:Andrew Leniart
Hi Thomas,
Have you considered purchasing an XP Updates agreement with Microsoft? Might be an easier solution if budget restraints prevent you from upgrading? I wouldn't feel comfortable with a lot of XP machines in an environment as it would be a case of when, not if, it will come back to bite you.  Patches are available, just at a cost.

Incidentally, SP3 for XP is still provided by Microsoft - why not install it?

Steps to take before you install Windows XP Service Pack 3

How to obtain Windows XP Service Pack 3 (SP3)

Cheers..
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Using 2003 or XP?  Something older?  I have little sympathy for you.  Things get old.  Software is constantly evolving and those creating it utilize new features and capabilities that (in theory) bring you more capabilities and ease of use.  It's impossible for any software developer to support everything they've ever created indefinitely.  Their abilities to continue innovating would grind to a halt.  Even for the largest of companies, like Microsoft.  They MUST cut off support at some point.  Microsoft has, it would seem, set this standard to 10 years.  Given how long that is and the advancements that can be done in 10 years, in my opinion, that is reasonable.  XP and Server 2003 are now 14+ years old.  WELL BEYOND their support life.  

Now I'm confident Microsoft doesn't actively seek to "break" their newer products ability to connect to the older, now unsupported ones, but I would say it's reasonable to EXPECT they no longer test and see if a Windows 10 computer can connect to a 2003 domain.  They MAY, at points, decide to remove functionality from 10 but I'm confident they do so to improve security.  And if that aspect that is removed happens to be the "main" way something was done in an older version that is no longer supported? Well, they warned you!

Ten years is a reasonable time frame.  If you're using what is now antiquated technology, I have little sympathy.

"Fine Lee, but what about me - I use a program that controls a device that requires it run on …
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LVL 59

Expert Comment

by:Jim Dettman (Microsoft MVP/ EE MVE)
I suppose in the end that what it boils down to is whether you consider safety a function of software or not.  I would say not.  

 But if you do, the problem is in measuring how safe it is and I don't think you ever can.   You can throw a battery of tests at it, but what's safe today may not be safe tomorrow.

 On the flip side, upgrading is no guarantee of being safe either.   To use your car analogy, if my new vehicle uses a Takata air big, then I'm not very safe am I despite that I now have an air bag.  

 So do I use "safety" as a measure in the decision to upgrade or not?   I don't see how you can.

 One could even make the argument in general that by upgrading into a situation with more complexity then what I currently have, I will probably be less safe than I am now (more complexity = more potential holes).    So in regards to safety, not upgrading may be a better choice.    Sometimes, the Devil you know is better than the one you don't.  

 To wrap this up,  I don't think there are any simple answers here of course, but I don't hold it against people for not wanting to upgrade.  I also don't think software vendors should sunset support for products they release.    If someone calls me on something I wrote 15 years ago, I'm not going to say "sorry, can't support that" just because it's old and they decided to keep it.
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LVL 98

Author Comment

by:Lee W, MVP
Funny, as I was formulating my response to you yesterday, I was going to include a reference to the Takata airbag thing - any time you add new capabilities, you get more complicated and though overall safety can improve, it can also, in some circumstances, become less safe.  I believe there is a net benefit (both with airbags and with new software's increasing complexity).

I guess it depends on how you value things.  To me, safety (security) is extremely important.  And I think most people should feel that way.  As such, people need to take responsibility for their continued existence and accept how technology generally (and technology companies) generally work and the economics attached to it.
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ransomwareEmail2.png Friday, May 12th, a new Ransomware threat named WannaCry came onto the scene, affecting organizations in over 150 countries. Damage includes more than 200,000 people infected with the malware and roughly $28,463 paid in bitcoin to decrypt files. That number may only rise unless companies act to mitigate the threat.
Though WannaCry wasn’t a targeted attack on any particular company, institutions using Microsoft operating systems no longer supported by Microsoft security updates found themselves affected by the fast-moving malware.
For a more in-depth look at this attack, check out the following resources:
1. Learn how to prevent this threat without paying a dime.
2. Explore ways to plan ahead and prevent against possible future ransomware attacks.
3. Mitigate damage with these tips if your organization has been affected, and more.
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While we're all running around getting things patched and making sure our clients know how to keep from getting ransomware, let's also take a minute to disable SMBv1 as well. Patching will help this time, but you *know* someone is going to try to find another huge hole in SMBv1 to exploit. No Windows OS after Windows XP uses SMBv1, but MS had to include it in their newer OSes for compatibility. All the OSes that only use SMBv1 have been EOL for years. Let's just get future SMBv1 exploits off the table now, shall we?

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/filecab/2016/09/16/stop-using-smb1/
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What have we learnt today about the WannaCry ransomware attack, what you should do.

1. do not block the URL KILLSWITCH - This will stop the spread in your network.

2. Make sure your Anti-Virus Definitions are up to date. 30% of Vendors had definitions updated by end of play Friday 15th May. This will stop trojan exeuting.

3. Patch Risky OS first e.g. Windows 2003 and XP, there are PATCHES available! - This will stop the payload exploit getting into the server.

4. Patch Windows 7, 8, 10, 2008, 2012 and 2016.  Check for a Security Rollup since March 2017.
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Operating Systems

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Solutions

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Contributors

Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. For large systems, the operating system makes sure that different programs and users running at the same time do not interfere with each other. The operating system is also responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system. Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other programs, called application programs, can run.