A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. The most familiar type of routers are home and small office cable or DSL routers that simply pass data, such as web pages, email, IM, and videos between computers and the Internet. More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone. Though routers are typically dedicated hardware devices, use of software-based routers has grown increasingly common.

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is there any way to apply a feature license to a Cisco 1100 via a serial terminal? the instructions suggest you should use tftp to get the .lic file to flash. I’d rather just enter a code and finish configuration with the full crypto set.
I'm in a new gig and I want to understand what happens if a site's Internet link goes down what takes over for their default route.
The routing protocol is EIGRP.


So the switches in the OFFICE are learning their path to the Internet from the Cisco ASA which advertises
a default route inward via EIGRP. The ASA learned it has the default via OSPF from an edge router
outside of it. My guess is that the DATA CENER's default route would propagate over the WAN to
the OFFICE in the event the Cisco ASA stopped advertising the default route inward.

How could I find out the behavior of the lost default route without causing an outage?

Thank you.

I have a problem on cisco C892. At the moment I apply a ACL-IN ACL on external Dialer0 int, I lose the connectivity from LAN to internet (ping, dns, http, everything), which is unwanted. While I still have RDP access from internet network to internal server at
From LAN to INET I want to block just SMTP except from mail server.
From external network I want to allow access to everything.
From other internet addresses I want to allow only what is specified in ACL-IN access list. is my fixed public IP address I get on Dialer0 interface with pppoe connection.
(I have been said that the costumer has another 4 public IP addresses which are routed by ISP over address, but they are not in use - if relevant)
Any ideas would be more than welcome.

Here is a relevant part of router configuration:

ip cef
ip domain name domain.local
ip name-server
ip name-server
ip inspect log drop-pkt
ip inspect name WALL tcp
ip inspect name WALL udp
ip inspect name WALL tftp
ip inspect name WALL ftp
ip inspect name WALL realaudio
ip inspect name WALL icmp
ip inspect name WALL rtsp
ip inspect name WALL http
ip inspect name WALL https
ip inspect name WALL ssh
ip inspect name WALL sip
ip inspect name WALL h323
no ipv6 cef
interface FastEthernet8
 description ***INTERNET PPPoE***
 no ip address
 no ip redirects
 no ip unreachables
 no ip proxy-arp
 ip virtual-reassembly
 load-interval 30
 duplex …
I want to connect a fresh Meraki switch to a Cisco ISR. By default the ports on the Meraki are native VLAN 1 and type Trunk. If I make the native VLAN 10 on the ISR's port attaching to the Meraki switch that would create a native VLAN mismatch - but still the two devices should be able to talk to each (assuming I have a DHCP scope on the ISR for VLAN 10).

If I have an ISR (say 4331) configured with inside trunked interface as follows:

Hostname(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1
Hostname(config-if)#no ip address

Hostname(config-if)#no shutdown

Hostname(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1.1
Hostname(config-if)#encapsulation dot1Q 1 native
Hostname(config-if)#ip address

Hostname(config-if)#interface FastEthernet0/1.2
Hostname(config-if)#encapsulation dot1Q 2
Hostname(config-if)#ip address

ip dhcp pool MGT
ip dhcp pool DATA

The meraki should pick up an address from DHCP for VLAN 10 owing
to the fact that those frames would be untagged despite the fact that the default
native vlan on the Meraki is on. Correct?
Hi support,
I should disable nat on a fritz avm 7590 router (I have a public subnet)
in the configuration menus I can't find the way.
Do you have any suggestions?
Thank you

I want to change the Vlan assignments on port 7 on an HP Switch.

Currently this port has no untagged vlans.  But it does have 2 x Tagged Vlans.

I think that was done by mistake and currently when I plug ethernet cable into that port no data comes from it.  I think the solution is to change 1 of the Vlans on that port to be untagged.

I hope it is as simple as:

>Vlan ##<enter>
>untagged 7<enter>
>write memory<enter>

Can anyone confirm?

Or should I
>vlan ##<enter>
>no tagged 7<enter>
>write memory
>unstagged 7<enter>
>write memory<enter>
I have 3 cisco routers with gateway to gateway vpns setup. Location 2 can ping the local domain (mydomain.local which resides at Main Location1) and everything works just fine. Users can connect to the domain perfectly.

Location 3 cannot ping mydomain.local or the netbios name of the server at MainLocation1. I can ping the ip address of the server at MainLocation1.

MainLocation 1 (Where the server resides)
Location 2 (satellite office)
Location 3 (satellite office).

On the workstation at Location 3 I manually assigned dns 1 to the server's ip.

Other details: All of the routers are the same. Any help I can get would be much appreciated!
I've been converting a number of network sites from the use of wooden shelving to 19-inch rackmount.
I understand the rackmount post-mounting standards but didn't realize the wide variety of equipment manufacturer mounting bracket designs.
Also, I've done considerable web searches and don't find details for such seemingly mundane things.
To keep it simple enough here, I'm interested in L-brackets or "ears" that attach to the front corners of "19-inch" full-width devices: switches, routers, firewalls, etc.

Generally, the brackets are attached to the device with small flathead screws.
The simple question of "what size are those screws?" seems to be hard to determine.
Juniper Networks
I can imagine that there is variation in screw size within companies' product lines.  Is that a common situation?
What sizes?

Right now, I need a set of mounting brackets and screws for a Juniper Networks SRX340.  
Where can these be purchased?
Went on a call to a new client today, who has been having issues with their network.  They have a DSL modem with WiFi on channel 1 (Since disabled) cascading to a TP-LINK Archer c5400 (Upgraded firmware today).  They are working on getting the PPPoE (Centurylink DSL connection) so we can bridge the DSL modem and set the router up properly.  Some devices hardwired and wireless will not function because they are getting a DHCP address from the DSL modem.  I can log into the DSL modem on those computers.  Is this a malfunction in the TP-Link (It only happens less than 10% of the time and very random on devices)?  I have had very bad experiences with TP-Link switches, are their routers any better?  The owner said the problems have always been existant and the old IT company (who installed it), could never get it working 100%.  I am recommending replacement of router, but wanted to hear thoughts on this subject.  The client will be ordering their own new router, and won't have until Monday.  This should be a non-issue once the modem is bridged.

If I release the DHCP enough times, it will go back to the correct DHCP server of the router and start working properly.  The DSL modem is not accessible by devices connected when getting the working IP address.
Hi guys,
I found this switch that will be potential candidate for my lab.
can you give me confirmation on the technical details?

24 rj45 Port Giga Ethernet ?
4 SFP (not SFP+) port ?
Possibility to add 2 modules of 2 SFP+ 10GB port each?
Layer 3 routing?

I don't understand what type of pci-e card + sfp module I need for my server or workstation
We utilize Fortigate vdoms for  many school districts. Currently, as recommended by Fortigate, we extend the school vlans across our WAN. The vlans become virtual interfaces on the Fortigate vdom which firewall policies are applied to. This works very well for us but, recently, this design caused issues on our WAN because of LAN issues at one of the districts bleeding over to the WAN. The solution we are currently implementing is to create a single, transient vlan and route all other vlan subnets through it to the Fortigate. This works for simple configurations but is not a viable solution for complex Fortigate configurations. The best solution would allow us to  extend the district layer 2 vlans across a layer 3 connection and then pick up the vlan again at the Fortigate so it can be used as a virtual interface with the same subnet as what is used at the school district. (See drawing) .

The switches we are currently using are Aruba 3810s

What options are available in this scenario?

Thank you for assistance!
We upgraded our circuit to a 200 meg circuit (Fiber)  200 up and 200 down.  I need to verify that the vendor is supplying us with fastest speed.   When I run a speed test, and I am connected directly to the router, my download speed is about 90 mbps  and the upload speed is about 180 mbps.  
I checking our sonic wall for any throttling and found none.  I looking for suggestion on the data I received and what I can do to validate the circuit?
A friend of mine recently recommended I get an access point in addition to the router I have.  What access point should I buy?  I have an Apple AirPort acting as my router/access point for about 30 wireless devices in the house.

My plan is to have my router hard wired to my desktop and smart tv, then an access point setup to serve the rest of the devices that use wireless (Nest, Baby monitoring cameras, cell phones, ipads, etc).

When you recommend an access point should I make the Apple AirPort the main router or have the new recommendation be the router and turn the AirPort into the access point?

Thank you.
Hi experts,

Previously I used SoftEther VPN to connect from home with my corporate network. That's because it works through the ISP firewall & Corperate firewall & no static public IP needed. Although I found SofthEther difficult to setup.

I am searching for a guide or software to setup a VPN between the network of my clients & my own network over the internet. What can you advise / recommend?
Is there a network appliance that can monitor primary and secondary internet links/circuits and if the primary link/circuit were to go down, this network device can automatically enable ports on devices connected to secondary internet link/circuit that have duplicated IP settings of the primary router's devices? And subsequently shut down the ports on devices connected to the secondary internet link/circuit when the primary internet link/circuit comes back online. The ports of devices connected to the secondary internet link/circuit should always remain disabled while the primary internet link/circuit is active and working because those devices' ports will have duplicated settings of the primary router's devices and should only be activated by the network appliance when the primary internet circuit goes down.
I know this is a weird question. but I'm sure you can help me with some suggestions please.

Bought a samsung smartthings wifi & hub thinking I can take it anywhere  (portable) but I realized it has to be connected wired (ethernet) to function. Since I have show a demo with this smartthings where I cannot get a ethernet and I have to depend on my wireless modem (portable) for this demo.

Looking for a wireless adapter or some device which can connect to my portable wireless and have an ethernet output, So I can take the ethernet out to connect my smartthing wifi & hub

Not sure, if these can help.
Hi Guys,
can you recommend a very cheap/refurbished VDSL2 modem ONLY with rj11 (POTS) WAN connection?
I want only modem or bridge feature because I have a dedicate firewall.

For now i have seen Draytek Vigor 130
I am unsure of the functions of the Ubiquiti Unifi Security Gateway.

The installation I am working on has 8 Ubiquiti Unifi wireless access points.  At the present time I have the Ubiquiti Unifi controller running on a Windows machine.

Is the Security Gateway also a router?  The cable company - Optimum Online - provided a cable modem and a wireless router. Can I replace the cable company's equipment and connect the Security Gateway between the cable modem and the network switch?  

The website says "Integration with UniFi Controller.  This is unclear as to whether the UniFi Controller is built into the Security Gateway, or whether I need to continue using the controller computer.
(I assume that I program the Security Gateway using a computer.)

Ubiquiti also mentioned that the device allows remote management.
Does this require purchasing two units, and then setting up the VPN server?

Thanks and Merry Christmas to all!

Although I have worked on Cisco routers for many years I have little experience on Cisco ASA. Recently I have started managing a site that uses ASA between two offices. The foreign office is managed by another Vendor. I sometimes feel like the foreign offices vendor is feeding me BS as things sometimes seem to fix themselves overnight with out change on his part "apparently"

Example. the following packet tracer was performed

packet-tracer input inside udp domain domain
Phase: 1
Type: UN-NAT
Subtype: static
Result: ALLOW
nat (inside,outside-tm) source static NO-NAT-LOCAL NO-NAT-LOCAL destination static NO-NAT-REMOTE NO-NAT-REMOTE
Additional Information:
NAT divert to egress interface outside-tm
Untranslate to
Phase: 2
Subtype: log
Result: ALLOW
access-group global global
access-list global extended permit ip any any
Additional Information:
Phase: 3
Type: NAT
Result: ALLOW
nat (inside,outside-tm) source static NO-NAT-LOCAL NO-NAT-LOCAL destination static NO-NAT-REMOTE NO-NAT-REMOTE
Additional Information:
Static translate to
Phase: 4
Type: NAT
Subtype: per-session
Result: ALLOW
Additional Information:
Phase: 5
Result: ALLOW
Additional Information:
Phase: 6
Subtype: np-inspect
Result: ALLOW
class-map …
Network DiagramPossible Routing issue.

I am trying to connect to a specific server over a vpn connection.    

I have configured the Firewall to provide an IP address in the range.   When I connect to it I can see the local network.  I can ping and connect to the local servers.  The single server I can not connect to is  I can ping and connect to other servers on the subnet without issue.

I ran a tracert from my local computer and I get to then   If I run it from the remote computer over the vpn I get to then nothing.  

I have checked the firewall and there are no rules specific to  on it or on which is the default Gateway.  There is a route for the on the Gateway

I have talked to the vendor who provided the server and they say there is nothing on the server which would block any traffic.  

Any suggestions on what to check next?
Our network has a Sonicwall router NSA 220W connected to Cisco unmanaged switches but the wireless signal is horrible. How would I configure the NSA 220W to use another wireless router to provide the WiFi for the office. I have a netgear wifi router that used to give us a strong WiFi signal for this. Thanks for the help.
Network access/routing issue.  The configuration that is place worked perfectly fine until the broadband ISP switch out their cable modem.  See attached diagram for clarification.
The issue at had is before the cable modem gateway was replaced, any workstation on the local LAN (192.168.1.x) was able to access the DVR/NVR camera system using it's address of  However, now that address is pingable from the 192.168.1.x network, but no other network access works (ie. the NVR software can't connect to it).  The NVR system is still accessible from offsite by using the public static ip of the ISP gateway which has port forwarding to the NVR device.  In an ideal world, I would have had the camera system installed behind the network firewall so all devices were on the same ip network.  So I am looking for some input on what might be going on here.  Why would the old ISP gateway allow the communication but the new gateway appears to not.  Is there something that we should communicate to the ISP to change in their gateway to fix this issue?

Any insight is appreciated.
Seeking information from Australian IT Pro's

A stalemate with the Internet provider and their supplied router has me stuck.

We needed to add an additional port fwd rule to the device a Telstra V7610 (we have 4 at present) and when added it fails to fwd the 5th port.  The Internet Provider confirmed it was an issue and has:
  • Downgraded the firmware and it failed to rectify.
  • Sent a Technician to our site to repeat the process and confirm I am seeting it up right, and was able to confirm that it fails.
  • Upgraded the firmware to a yet to be released version which created its own new list of problems, one of which was the loss of access to the management interface as soon as the connection to the NBN was online.

Like many we had to remove a perfectly good apliance (Draytek Vigor Series) and replace it with the Telstra/Netgear V7610.  In two years we've had the V7610 replaced 3 maybe 4 times to address problems with DOT and connection quality.

Do you have a solution to retianing the V7610 for DOT and another device for all other services, even better do you have one that addresses a V7610 with a Draytek Vigor appliance?
I will begin studying for a CCNA exam come January.  (New Year's resolution.)  Wondering if anyone has a suggestion on a decent model Cisco router to purchase on eBay for my SoHo?  Thanks.

I am setting up a SOHO.
Equipment is as follows.
1)  4 security cameras that record to the cloud through a Northern system
2)  Home wireless system mesh network
3)  Usual computers,  printers, etc
4)  Other "internet of things devices"  such as thermostats, lights.
5)  I have a total of 10 Ethernet jacks in our home, but only 6 in current use.

I will be installing a 19 inch 6U Wall Mount Patch Panel Bracket - 13.75 inch deep (also 24 port Cat 5E patch panel etc)
Gigabit internet.

I have concerns about putting all these things on one switch.  I like the idea of segmenting my network.  
I have heard good things about the Ubiquiti.  I am not an expert on routers, but I not a unfamiliar either.  
I am thinking about a router/switch capable of VLANS and POE for the cameras.  If I am misguided, then new insights are welcome.

With that in mind,  I would appreciate any help in selecting  a router / switch that would be appropriate but not more expensive than I need.

Thank you for your help.






A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. The most familiar type of routers are home and small office cable or DSL routers that simply pass data, such as web pages, email, IM, and videos between computers and the Internet. More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone. Though routers are typically dedicated hardware devices, use of software-based routers has grown increasingly common.