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Scripting Languages

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A scripting language is a programming language that supports scripts, programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator. Scripting languages are often interpreted (rather than compiled). Primitives are usually the elementary tasks or API calls, and the language allows them to be combined into more complex programs. Environments that can be automated through scripting include software applications, web pages within a web browser, the shells of operating systems (OS), embedded systems, as well as numerous games. A scripting language can be viewed as a domain-specific language for a particular environment; in the case of scripting an application, this is also known as an extension language.

Hello:

I have tried several different ways of combining my two CTEs within one "UNION ALL" statement but am having no luck.

How do I modify my syntax below to accomplish this?

Thank you!

Software Engineer

; with wip as 
(
select NULL as [LOTSEQNBR], FG.BatchNo as [FGBATCH], FG.FormulaId as [FG], FG.[Labor Cost] as [FGLABOR], FG.[OverHead Cost] as [FGOH], 
FG.[Material Cost] as [FGMAT], FG.[Labor Cost] + FG.[OverHead Cost] + FG.[Material Cost] as [FGCOST], FG.[TotalFGWeightYielded] as [FGWEIGHT], 
FG.[Labor Cost]/FG.[TotalFGWeightYielded] as [LABORLB],
FG.[OverHead Cost]/FG.[TotalFGWeightYielded] as [OHLB],
FG.[Material Cost]/FG.[TotalFGWeightYielded] as [MATLB],
NULL as [FORMULA], NULL as [FORMULAMAT], NULL AS [FORMULALABOR], NULL AS [FORMULAOH], NULL AS [Component], NULL as [LOT], NULL as [LOTQTY], 
NULL as [LOTMATUNITCOST], NULL as [LOTMATWIPCOST]
from BM_View_Dashboard_ProductionCostAnalysis FG
INNER JOIN BM010115 BOM ON FG.FormulaId = BOM.PPN_I
where FG.FormulaId = '506' and FG.BatchNo = '50418G12D' and BOM.SUBCAT_I = 1)
select [LOTSEQNBR], [FGBATCH], [FG], [FGLABOR], [FGOH], [FGMAT], [FGCOST], [FGWEIGHT], [LABORLB], [OHLB], [MATLB], [FORMULA], [FORMULAMAT], [FORMULALABOR], 
[FORMULAOH], [Component], [LOT], [LOTQTY], [LOTMATUNITCOST], [LOTMATWIPCOST],
[LABORLB]*[LOTQTY] as [LOTLABORWIPCOST],
[OHLB]*[LOTQTY] as [LOTOHWIPCOST]
from wip
; with wiplot as 
(
select * from (
select DISTINCT LOT.SLTSQNUM AS [LOTSEQNBR], NULL as [FGBATCH], NULL as [FG], NULL 

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0
How do I add a conditional for the ipAddress.

if IpAddress -eq "-" do not count it or do not add it into the csv. See attachment

Get-WinEvent -FilterHashTable @{LogName='Security'; ProviderName='Microsoft-Windows-Security-Auditing';id=4624; StartTime="3/28/20"; EndTime="3/30/20"} | ForEach-Object {
	$xml = [xml]$_.ToXml().Replace('xmlns', 'dummy')
	$_ | Select-Object -Property TimeCreated, MachineName,`
	 @{n='TargetUserName';	e={"$($xml.SelectSingleNode("Event/EventData/Data[@Name='TargetDomainName']").InnerText)\$($xml.SelectSingleNode("Event/EventData/Data[@Name='TargetUserName']").InnerText)"}},
	 @{n='LogonType'; e={$xml.SelectSingleNode("Event/EventData/Data[@Name='LogonType']").InnerText}},
	 @{n='WorkstationName'; e={$xml.SelectSingleNode("Event/EventData/Data[@Name='WorkstationName']").InnerText}},
	 @{n='IpAddress'; e={$xml.SelectSingleNode("Event/EventData/Data[@Name='IpAddress']").InnerText}},
	 @{n='IpPort'; e={$xml.SelectSingleNode("Event/EventData/Data[@Name='IpPort']").InnerText}}
	} | Export-Csv D:\ger\SCRIPTS\EventID_4624.csv -nti

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EventID_4624---Copy.csv
0
Hello I have enable audit policies in our domain and would like to read the Message content of the security log and grab the New Logon and Network Information fields

I am executing the following script

Get-WinEvent -Computername DomainController01 -FilterHastTable @{logname='security';ProviderName='Microsoft-Windows-Security-Auditing';id=4624;StartTime="3/27/20";EndTime=3/28/20"}

or by using Get-EventLog

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See screenshot, how do i grab the individual properties or some properties from the Message section ?

Thanks for your help,
Screen-Shot-2020-03-27-at-5.54.44-PM.png
0
I have a WinSCP batch file that I am trying to utilize for uploading a file.  The batch when run does open, but logs in only and does not upload the file or exit even from the script.  Just keeps the window open.  Any help would be greatly appreciated.  Attaching file.
71142Orders.txt
0
Hi Experts,

If you go to www.iwscc.ca you will see in the header 2 orange buttons: Corporate and Self-Registration, both going to #

Under WP Admin, I see that this theme is called Nonprofit, and the buttons are set in Theme Options >Address Bar, and ou will see in the snapshot that I can set the buttons label, but not the url. My questions are...

1- How do I remove the Corporate button? If I leave it blank, I just get an orange square.

2- How can I actually set an url to these?

I know I can create a child theme, and address #1 with CSS and #2 with JS, but I think there should be an easier way since the theme provides these buttons.

BTW- even though in the screenshot it says Webdivia, under themes it says Nonprofit. I just inherited this website.

Thank you,
wp admin
0
Dear experts

I been working work stastic of corona virus, this script below is not working, whenever I run this, it says,
this row. $out[$header[$i++]] = $_.InnerText.Trim() cannot be null, now I didn't make any change of the script so I think the problem should be on web that it changed something, but then I noticed that in the webside they added yesterday data and today data, that might break the index of counting. Anyone know how to fix this?

Thanks

$credential = Import-CliXml -Path 'C:\test\cred.xml'
[System.Net.ServicePointManager]::SecurityProtocol = `
[System.Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Tls11 -bor
[System.Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Tls12 -bor `  
[System.Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Tls -bor `
[System.Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Ssl3

$title = 'Corona Virus spread'
$time = (Get-Date).ToString("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm")
$attachment = 'C:\test\corona.html'
$url = "https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/#countries"
$countries = 'Sweden', 'China', 'Iran','USA', 'Italy', 'Finland', 'Norway', 'Denmark', 'Russia', 'UK', 'Spain', 'Thailand', 'Canada', 'India', 'France', 'Germany'
# Available properties: 'Country,Other', 'TotalCases', 'NewCases', 'TotalDeaths', 'NewDeaths', 'TotalRecovered', 'ActiveCases', 'Serious,Critical', 'Tot Cases/1M pop'
$properties = 'Country,Other', 'TotalCases', 'Tot Cases/1M pop','ActiveCases','Serious,Critical','TotalDeaths' , 'TotalRecovered' 

$htmlHead = @'
<style>
body {background-color:white; font-family:verdana; font-size:32px;}
table

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1
Looking for a script that can be used remotely to kill a specific process for a specific user on any server in the Citrix farm.  
Also is it possible that there can be an Input Box that I can enter the Username and process name?

Thanks in advance.
1
I have a script  to collect logs. I want to collect more files residing at a different file location.I am using $logpath as a variable. Can anyone guide please.


$Logshare = "\\share\CMLogShare\"
#Get path for SCCM client Log files
$Logpath = Get-ItemProperty -path "C:\Windows\CCM\Logs"
$Log = $logpath

#Create folders
New-Item -Path $env:temp\SCCMLogs -ItemType Directory -Force
Copy-item -path $log\* -destination $env:temp\Sccmlogs -Force
0
Hi,

I run this PowerSell cmd in O365:

Set-UnifiedGroup $groupName -UnifiedGroupWelcomeMessageEnabled:$false

But how can do the contrary with Get-UnifiedGroup?

I want to see the status of: UnifiedGroupWelcomeMessageEnabled
0
Dear expert

Im trying to send a file to ftp using winSCPnet.dll it not working I got output:

Exception calling "Open" with "1" argument(s): "Connection failed.
Connection failed."
    + CategoryInfo          : NotSpecified: (:) [Write-Error], WriteErrorException
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.WriteErrorException

I could not find anything wrong with the code below, I tried with winscp to connect that worked, so it was not connect problem. Anyone know how to I can send a file to FTP using Powershell?

Thnx

Add-Type -Path "C:\Users\sewetia001\AppData\Local\Programs\WinSCP\WinSCPnet.dll"
    $session = New-Object WinSCP.Session
$sessionOptions = New-Object WinSCP.SessionOptions

$sessionOptions.Protocol = [WinSCP.Protocol]::ftp
$sessionOptions.HostName = "Hostname"
$sessionOptions.UserName = "User"
$sessionOptions.Password = "Passwrd"

try {
    $session.Open($sessionOptions)

    }

} catch {
    Write-Error $_
    $session.Dispose()
}

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0
Dear expert

Please read the code below, now I would like to do this: when the property show on 'TotalRecovered' I would CSS to change the color of that column header to green background.
Is there a way to do?

Thanks again

$credential = Import-CliXml -Path 'C:\test\cred.xml'
$attachment = 'C:\test\corona.html'
$smtp = 'smtp.office365.com'
$url = "https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/#countries"
$countries = 'Sweden', 'China', 'Iran','USA', 'Italy', 'Finland', 'Norway', 'Denmark', 'Russia'
# Available properties: 'Country,Other', 'TotalCases', 'NewCases', 'TotalDeaths', 'NewDeaths', 'TotalRecovered', 'ActiveCases', 'Serious,Critical', 'Tot Cases/1M pop'
$properties = 'Country,Other', 'TotalCases', 'Tot Cases/1M pop', 'TotalDeaths' , 'TotalRecovered'

$htmlHead = @' 
<style>
	BODY {background-color:white;font-family:verdana;font-size:12px;} 
	TABLE {border-width: 1px;border-style: solid;border-color: black;border-collapse: collapse;} 
	TH {border-width: 1px;padding: 0px;border-style: solid;border-color: black;padding:3px;background-color:#FF0000} 
	TD {border-width: 1px;padding: 0px;border-style: solid;border-color: black;padding:3px} 
	tr:nth-child(odd) {background-color:#d3d3d3;} 
	tr:nth-child(even) {background-color:white;} 
</style>
'@

Add-Type -Path C:\Test\HtmlAgilityPack.dll
$web = New-Object -TypeName HtmlAgilityPack.HtmlWeb
$doc = $web.Load($url)
$header = $doc.DocumentNode.SelectNodes('//th') | Select-Object -ExpandProperty InnerText | 

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0
Dear expert, I could make the code work as I wanted. Now the below script, if I run it in powershell as a not saved operation just open the powershell ISE and copy it to a untitle powershell window and run, this work perfectly, the output also works, however when I save this as a name: like corona.ps1 and put this in a task schedule plan, this is not showing correct the css seems not applied when I did it, I wonder why?

Thx

$credential = Import-CliXml -Path 'C:\test\cred.xml'
$attachment = 'C:\test\corona.html'
$htmlout = @()
$smtp = 'smtp.office365.com'
$url = "https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/#countries"
$countries = 'Sweden', 'China', 'Iran','USA', 'Italy', 'Finland', 'Norway', 'Denmark', 'Russia', 'Country,Other', 'TotalCases', 'NewCases', 'TotalDeaths', 'NewDeaths', 'TotalRecovered', 'ActiveCases', 'Serious,Critical', 'Tot Cases/1M pop'
$properties = 'Country,Other', 'TotalCases', 'Tot Cases/1M pop', 'TotalDeaths'
Add-Type -Path C:\Test\HtmlAgilityPack.dll
$web = New-Object -TypeName HtmlAgilityPack.HtmlWeb
$doc = $web.Load($url)
$header = $doc.DocumentNode.SelectNodes('//th') | Select-Object -ExpandProperty InnerText | ForEach-Object {($_ -replace '&nbsp;', ' ').Trim()}
$htmlout = $doc.DocumentNode.SelectNodes('//tr') | Select-Object -Skip 1 | 
ForEach-Object { $i = 0 
$out = [ordered]@{} 
$_.SelectNodes('td') | ForEach-Object { $out[$header[$i++]] = $_.InnerText.Trim() } 
$htmlHead = 
@' 
<style> 
BODY 

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0
Dear experts

I would like to use powershell to grab a string from a txt file. The txt file got content: ........</td> <td style="font-weight: bold; text-align:right">........
I would like to first you find the </td> <td style="font-weight: bold; text-align:right"> when you find it you grab the string from the right side position of it, and 10 position to the right from the string.

The whole code below as you can see the substring(0,6) and substring(0,3) is wrong, I could however point to the txt file current position, like: 134455 or something, but that didn't work if the site change the position of the table rows.

Any idea? Thanks  

$FileName = "C:\test\world.txt"
if (Test-Path $FileName) {
  Remove-Item $FileName
}

[Net.ServicePointManager]::SecurityProtocol = [Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Tls12
$corona = Invoke-WebRequest -Uri "https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/#countries" -UseBasicParsing
$corona.RawContent | Out-File $FileName

$sweden = 'Sweden </td> <td style="font-weight: bold; text-align:right">'
$china = 'China</a> </td> <td style="font-weight: bold; text-align:right">'

$getcontent = Get-Content $FileName | select $china

$chinainfection = $getcontent.Substring(0,6)
$chinainfection -replace ‘,’
$new = Get-Content $FileName | Select $sweden
$swedeninfection = $getcontent.Substring(0,3)
$swedeninfection -replace ‘,’
$chinapopulation = '1437616423'
$swedenpopulation = '10079833'
$chinacalc = $chinainfection / $chinapopulation * 100

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0
Dear expert I couldn't figurer it out the way to set output of following script:

$result = ForEach ($path in $pathlist) {
$filelist = Get-ChildItem $path | Where-Object {!($_.PSIsContainer) -and ($_.LastWriteTime -le $7daysago) -or ($_.Name -like '*failed*')}
$count = $filelist | Measure-Object | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Count
If ($count -gt 0) {
$warning++

$out = '' | Select-Object -Property FilesCount, Folder, FileNames
$out.FilesCount = $count
$out.Folder = $path
$out.FileNames = $filelist.name
$out
}
}
$html = $html + "<style>"
$html = $html + "BODY{background-color:white;font-family:verdana;font-size:12px;}"
$html = $html + "TABLE{border-width: 1px;border-style: solid;border-color: black;border-collapse: collapse;}"
$html = $html + "TH{border-width: 1px;padding: 0px;border-style: solid;border-color: black;padding:3px;background-color:#778899}"
$html = $html + "TD{border-width: 1px;padding: 0px;border-style: solid;border-color: black;padding:3px}"
$html = $html + "tr:nth-child(odd) { background-color:#d3d3d3;}"
$html = $html + "tr:nth-child(even) { background-color:white;}"
$html = $html + "</style>"
$htmlbody= @()
$htmlbody = $result | Select "FilesCount", “Folder", "FileNames" | convertto-html -head $html | out-file C:\temp\test2.html

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The problem is in the FileNames column of the table, when it shows multi files in the folder, the output start to bug... In output when the files become more than one, it starts to show: System.Object[]

The output I would like to show is in that column of FileNames, list all the filenames with breaks between each names. I tried with:
$out.FileNames = $filelist.name -join "<br>" not working, I also tried: -join "#" and then did a -replace "#","<br>"on the $htmlbody. Those output in test2.html became weird... the columns are not showing as it should. Some filename jump outside column....

Please help, thnx in advance.
0
Dear expert this is part of the script:
$a = @'
<style>
	body	{background-color:white;font-family:verdana;font-size:22px;text-align:center;}
	table	{border-width: 1px;border-style: solid;border-color: black;border-collapse: collapse;margin-left: auto;margin-right: auto;text-align:left;}
	th		{border-width: 1px;padding: 0px;border-style: solid;border-color: black;padding:3px;background-color:#d7d9d4}
	td		{border-width: 1px;padding: 0px;border-style: solid;border-color: black;padding:3px;vertical-align: middle;}
	tr[Critical="True"]			{background-color: Red;}
	tr[BatchEndedOK="False"]	{background-color: #FF0000;}
            tr[BatchEndedOK="NULL"]	{background-color: #FF0000;}
	td[FileMissing="True"]		{background-color: #FF0000; color: #FF0000;}
	td[FileMissing="False"]		{color: white;}
    td[BatchEndedOK="True"]	{background-color: Green; color: Green;}
</style>
'@

$htmlout = $arr |
	Select-Object -Property BatchName, TimeStamp, BatchOK, File |
	ConvertTo-Html -Head $a -PreContent "<H1>$($title)</H1><H2>$($timespan)</H2><H3>$($forbund)</H3><BR><BR>" |
	ForEach-Object {
		If ($_ -match '\A<tr><td>') {
			$xml = [xml]$_
			$xml.SelectSingleNode('/tr').SetAttribute('Critical', (-not $arr[$i].BatchOK).ToString())
                                    $xml.SelectSingleNode('/tr').SetAttribute('Critical', ($arr[$i].BatchOK).ToString())
			$xml.SelectSingleNode('/tr/td[3]').SetAttribute('BatchEndedOK', $arr[$i].BatchOK.ToString())
			

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1
I would like to use PDFTK to rotate all ODD pages in 1.pdf
What is the command to do this?
0
I'm trying to get each line or row of output I get from a command into a seperate variable.
I'm defining a variable from this command I'm running (function listed below):
$PKGID = CM -Computername computer1 | Where-Object SuccessOrFailureCode -ne 0 | Select-Object packageid -ExpandProperty packageid
Write-output "$PKGID"

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For example, if I only get one hit or SuccessOrFailureCode -ne 0, the output I get is:
1000
If I get two or more hits, the output can look like:
1001
1002
1003
I am then using this $PKGID variable in another function to trigger an install.
This only works when I have one hit, when I have more than one, the $PKGID variable encapsulates all of them and I cannot use.

Is there a way to get the output of each row into a seperate variable?  Example:
$PKGID would = 1000
$PKGID1 would = 1001
$PKGID2 would = 1002

This is the function I'm calling this from:

Function CM {

[CmdletBinding()]
Param
(
      [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
[string[]]$ComputerName = $env:COMPUTERNAME
)

Begin
{

$Code = {
# Get Execution History from registry, and package details from WMI
$ExecutionHistoryKey = "HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\SMS\Mobile Client\Software     Distribution\Execution History" 
$ContextKeys = Get-ChildItem $ExecutionHistoryKey | Select -ExpandProperty PSChildName
foreach ($ContextKey in $ContextKeys)
{
    If ($ContextKey -eq "System")
    {
        $ContextKey = 

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0
Please assist.

In the $dc variable. If I have a single name in $DC variable the scripts works fine but if I have more than one name in the variable  $DC's  the script does not execute.

I want the $computers variable to ping $dc variable and if any one of the DCs is reachable execute the script.  Below is the script



$dc = Get-Content ".\dc.txt"
$computers = Get-Content ".\names.txt"
$Registrypol = "\\{0}\C$\Windows\System32\gp\*.txt"
$commentcmtx = "\\{0}\C$\Windows\System32\gp\mp\*.txt"
$Softwaredistribution = "\\{0}\C$\Windows\SoftwareDistributiontest"
$logfile = "\\HAZ-CM\temp\offline.txt"

Add-Content $logfile $(Get-Date)
Add-Content $logfile "Computer is Offline"
foreach ($computer in $computers) {
      Test-Connection -Source $computer -ComputerName $dc -Count 2 -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
      If ($?) {
            Add-Content $logfile "$computer is Online"
            "$computer" >> $logfile
            Get-Service -Name wuauserv -ComputerName $computer| Stop-Service -Force
            $path = $Registrypol -f $computer
            Remove-Item -Path $path -Force
            $path = $commentcmtx -f $computer
            Remove-Item -Path $path -Force
            $path = $Softwaredistribution -f $computer
            If (Test-Path -Path $path) {
                  Remove-Item -Path $path -Recurse -Force
            }
            Get-Service -Name wuauserv -ComputerName $computer| Start-Service
            Invoke-WmiMethod -Namespace root\ccm -Class

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1
I would like to modify this Powershell script so that it password protects the zip file.
For testing we can use the Password:   p#1234!



$7zipPath = "$env:ProgramFiles\7-Zip\7z.exe"

if (-not (Test-Path -Path $7zipPath -PathType Leaf)) {
    throw "7 zip file '$7zipPath' not found"
}

Set-Alias 7zip $7zipPath

$Source = "c:\BackupFrom\backMeUp.txt"
$Target = "c:\BackupFolder\backup.zip"

7zip a -mx=9 $Target $Source
0
Hi all,

I created a batch script and was wondering if someone could let me know if there are any syntax errors before I deploy this out.   Currently we have a customer that needs to have a directory purged nightly.   Reason is when the come in the next day their application still shows previous days data which mixes up with their current data the next day.   Here is the batch script I wrote.  Appreciate the help as always.

echo deleting file

del "D:\CZM-HFA2i\EM\Data_Export\Processed *.*" /s /f /q
del "D:\CZM-HFA2i\NM\Data_Export\Processed *.*" /s /f /q
del "D:\CZM-HFA2i\OP\Data_Export\Processed *.*" /s /f /q
del "D:\CZM-HFA2i\WM\Data_Export\Processed *.*" /s /f /q


echo Done!
0
I would like to use a script to effectively copy data from one computer to a server, create a zip file, and password protected.
What would you suggest?
0
Hello Experts,

in plain English...

if "yes" is selected, move row to a different sheet.
also add the current date into the Col. and
now calculate the total days between col A & G and display results in H

for some reason it doing the calctulation for the row above, not the current row that has just been populated.

any ideas please?

function onEdit(event) {
  var ss = SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSpreadsheet();
  var s = event.source.getActiveSheet();
  var r = event.source.getActiveRange();

  if(s.getName() == "Active Jobs" && r.getColumn() == 7 && r.getValue() == "yes") {
    var row = r.getRow();
    var numColumns = s.getLastColumn();
    var targetSheet = ss.getSheetByName("Completed Jobs");
    var target = targetSheet.getRange(targetSheet.getLastRow() + 1, 1);
    //This puts the completion date into the last column of data currently col G
    targetSheet.getRange(targetSheet.getLastRow(),numColumns  + 0).setValue(new Date());
    //Calculates the turn around time in days for column I on the Completed sheet
    targetSheet.getRange(targetSheet.getLastRow(),numColumns  + 1).setFormula("=DATEDIF(R[0]C[-7],R[0]C[-1],\"D\")+1");
    s.getRange(row, 1, 1, numColumns).moveTo(target);
    s.deleteRow(row);
  }
}

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https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1X4M2G0f7MEpDETrVIZ2kU9MJAFC8K9jR9ZqKOijYDN0/edit?usp=sharing
0
I would like to modify the attached output.xlsx file.

Regardless of how many lines it has I would always like to add a Totals line at the bottom and total the following columns.

Tot PC Qty

Code 1 Qty

Code 2 Qty

Code 3 Qty

Full P

Part P

Part P on G

Stand PU

C PU

Extra C PU

Extra Stnd PU

I would like to accomplish this by using an external script.
output.xlsx
0
Dear expert

Is there a way to show which powershell command that support in which powershell version? For exemple: get-childitems this command support version 1.0 or something like that, but if you put get-childitem -file then the version need to be higher of the powershell to run it, I would like to know how to check which powershell version support to certain command.

Thanks.
1
Hi,

Firstly thank you for taking a look at my question.

Basically all I need to do is delete the last line of a text file - in a powerscript single line script if possible.

Is this possible?

many thanks!
0

Scripting Languages

28K

Solutions

21K

Contributors

A scripting language is a programming language that supports scripts, programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator. Scripting languages are often interpreted (rather than compiled). Primitives are usually the elementary tasks or API calls, and the language allows them to be combined into more complex programs. Environments that can be automated through scripting include software applications, web pages within a web browser, the shells of operating systems (OS), embedded systems, as well as numerous games. A scripting language can be viewed as a domain-specific language for a particular environment; in the case of scripting an application, this is also known as an extension language.