Scripting Languages

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A scripting language is a programming language that supports scripts, programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator. Scripting languages are often interpreted (rather than compiled). Primitives are usually the elementary tasks or API calls, and the language allows them to be combined into more complex programs. Environments that can be automated through scripting include software applications, web pages within a web browser, the shells of operating systems (OS), embedded systems, as well as numerous games. A scripting language can be viewed as a domain-specific language for a particular environment; in the case of scripting an application, this is also known as an extension language.

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Xpdf - PDFtoPS - Command Line Utility to Convert a PDF File to PS (PostScript)
In this tenth video of my Xpdf series, I discuss and demonstrate the PDFtoPS utility, which converts a PDF file to PostScript (PS). Also, it provides an option allowing creation of an Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) file. It performs its functions via a command line interface, making it suitable for use in programs, scripts, batch files — any place where a command line call can be made.

1. Download the software


You may have already downloaded the Xpdf tools while watching one of my earlier videos in the series, but there has since been an upgrade from Version 3 to Version 4 and there is a new download site:

https://www.xpdfreader.com/download.html

Visit that site and download the pre-compiled Windows binary ZIP archive, then unzip it.

Step1

2. Locate the documentation folder for the Xpdf utilities


Go to the folder where you unzipped the downloaded ZIP file and find the doc folder.

Step2

3. Read the documentation for the PDFtoPS tool


Go into the doc folder and find the plain text file called pdftops.txt.

Open it with any text editor, such as Notepad, and read it. This is the documentation for the PDFtoPS tool.

Step3

4. Set up a test folder


Create a test folder.

Copy pdftops.exe from the unzipped bin32 folder into your test folder.

Copy a sample PDF file into your test folder.

Step4

5. Set up a command prompt for testing


Open a command prompt window.

Navigate to your test folder.

Issue a DIR command in the command prompt to be sure that only two files are in it - the PDFtoPS executable and the sample PDF file.

Step5

6. Run the PDFtoPS utility to create the PostScript file


Issue the following command in the command prompt:

pdftops TestFileName.pdf
1
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Expert Comment

by:Andrew Leniart
Great video and introduction to a very useful tool indeed.
0
LVL 63

Author Comment

by:Joe Winograd, Fellow 2017
Thank you, Andrew, I appreciate the compliment and the endorsement. Happy New Year! Regards, Joe
0
Angular Fundamentals
LVL 13
Angular Fundamentals

Learn the fundamentals of Angular 2, a JavaScript framework for developing dynamic single page applications.

Xpdf - PDFtoPPM - Command Line Utility to Convert a PDF File to PPM, PGM, PBM
In this ninth video of my Xpdf series, I discuss and demonstrate the PDFtoPPM tool, which converts a PDF file to color portable pixmap (PPM) format, grayscale portable graymap (PGM) format, or monochrome (black & white) portable bitmap (PBM) format. It creates a separate image file for each page of the PDF file. It does this via a command line interface, making it suitable for use in programs, scripts, batch files — any place where a command line call can be made.

1. Download the software


You may have already downloaded the Xpdf tools while watching one of my earlier videos in the series, but there has since been an upgrade from Version 3 to Version 4 and there is a new download site:

https://www.xpdfreader.com/download.html

Visit that site and download the pre-compiled Windows binary ZIP archive, then unzip it.

Step1

2. Locate the documentation folder for the Xpdf utilities


Go to the folder where you unzipped the downloaded ZIP file and find the doc folder.

Step2

3. Read the documentation for the PDFtoPPM tool


Go into the doc folder and find the plain text file called pdftoppm.txt.

Open it with any text editor, such as Notepad, and read it. This is the documentation for the PDFtoPPM tool.

Step3

4. Set up a test folder


Create a test folder.

Copy pdftoppm.exe from the unzipped bin32 folder into your test folder.

Copy a sample PDF file into your test folder, preferably one with numerous pages.

Step4

5. Set up a command prompt for testing


Open a command prompt window.

Navigate to your test folder.

Issue a DIR command in the command prompt to be sure that only two files are in it - the PDFtoPPM executable and the sample PDF file.

Step5
1
Xpdf - PDFtoHTML - Command Line Utility to Convert a PDF File to HTML
In this eighth video of my Xpdf series, I discuss and demonstrate the PDFtoHTML utility, which, exactly as its name says, converts a PDF file to HTML. It does this via a command line interface, making it suitable for use in programs, scripts, batch files — any place where a command line call can be made.

1. Download the software


You may have already downloaded the Xpdf tools while watching one of my earlier videos in the series, but there has since been an upgrade from Version 3 to Version 4 and there is a new download site:

https://www.xpdfreader.com/download.html

Visit that site and download the pre-compiled Windows binary ZIP archive, then unzip it.

Step1

2. Locate the documentation folder for the Xpdf utilities


Go to the folder where you unzipped the downloaded ZIP file and find the doc folder.

Step2

3. Read the documentation for the PDFtoHTML tool


Go into the doc folder and find the pdftohtml.txt file.

It is a plain text file. Open it with any text editor, such as Notepad, and read it. This is the documentation for the PDFtoHTML tool.

Step3

4. Set up a test folder


Create a test folder.

Copy pdftohtml.exe from the unzipped bin32 folder into your test folder.

Copy a sample PDF file into your test folder, preferably one with numerous pages.

Step4

5. Set up a command prompt for testing


Open a command prompt window.

Navigate to your test folder.

Issue a DIR command in the command prompt to be sure that only two files are in it - the PDFtoHTML executable and the sample PDF file.

Step5

6. Run the PDFtoHTML utility


Issue the following command in the command prompt:

pdftohtml TestFileName.pdf HTMLfolder
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xpdfrc - Configuration File for All Xpdf Utilities
This is the eleventh — and final — video of my Experts Exchange Micro Tutorials on the Xpdf utilities. The first video is an overview of the command line tools. The next nine videos are tutorials on all them:

PDFimages - Extract Images from PDF Files
PDFtoText - Convert PDF Files to Plain Text Files
PDFinfo - Retrieve Page Count and Other Information from PDF Files
PDFdetach - Detach Attachments from PDF Files
PDFtoPNG - Convert a Multi-page PDF File into Separate PNG Files
PDFfonts - List Fonts Used in a PDF File
PDFtoHTML - Convert a PDF File to HTML
PDFtoPPM - Convert a PDF File to PPM, PGM, PBM
PDFtoPS - Convert a PDF File to PS (PostScript)

This last video in the series discusses xpdfrc, which is the single configuration file that Xpdf uses for all nine utilities. It provides an enormous number of options, allowing extensive control of the tools, such as character mapping, font configuration, PostScript control, rasterizer settings, text control, and much more.

1. Download the software and fonts


You may have already downloaded the Xpdf tools while watching one of my earlier videos in the series, but there has since been an upgrade from Version 3 to Version 4 and there is a new download site:

https://www.xpdfreader.com/download.html

Visit that site and download the pre-compiled Windows binary ZIP archive, then unzip it.

Download the Symbol and Zapf Dingbats fonts from the same page.

Step1

2. Locate the documentation folder for the Xpdf utilities


Go to the folder where you unzipped the downloaded ZIP file and find the doc folder.

Step2
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How to add custom Run command to Notepad++ for AutoHotkey and other programming/scripting languages
In a recent question here at Experts Exchange, a member asked how to run an AutoHotkey script (.AHK) directly from Notepad++ (aka NPP). This video Micro Tutorial shows how to do it by adding a custom Run command to NPP. The method may easily be extended to any programming/scripting language that is callable via the command line with a parameter for the source code file name. A second example of this technique is included in the video for running a batch file (.BAT) in NPP.

1. Click the Run menu, then click the first item — Run...


After running NPP and performing the actions above, you will have this dialog:

Step1

2. Browse to the AutoHotkey executable


Click the ... button and navigate to AutoHotkey.exe, which is in C:\Program Files\AutoHotkey\ in a standard installation (but may, of course, be in a different folder on your system).

Step2

3. Add a parameter for the full path of the file in the current tab


You will now have this dialog box:

Step3a
Go to the end of the AutoHotkey.exe file name in the box and add this (including the quote marks):

"$(FULL_CURRENT_PATH)"

Be sure to make it all upper case.

Step3b

4. Save the new Run command


Click the Save... button, which gives you this dialog:

Step4
Give the new, custom Run command a name (I chose AHK in the video) and assign it to a hotkey (if you wish) by ticking CTRL and/or ALT and/or SHIFT, then one of the keys in the drop-down. When you have an OK button that is not grayed out, click it, then click Cancel to close the dialog.

5. Repeat Steps 1-4 for other programming/scripting languages


The video shows how to do it for batch (BAT) files, namely:

cmd /c "$(FULL_CURRENT_PATH)"

You may, of course, do it for other programming/scripting languages.

Step5
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Expert Comment

by:Kyle Santos
Nice.  I use AutoHotKeys and NotePad++ and they're great programs for what I do at my job.  Good video, Joe!
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Author Comment

by:Joe Winograd, Fellow 2017
Hi Kyle,
Thanks for the compliment and the endorsement — both very much appreciated! Regards, Joe
0
Lists and Links
This lesson goes over how to construct ordered and unordered lists and how to create hyperlinks.
1
Xpdf - PDFfonts - Command Line Utility to List Fonts Used in a PDF File
In this seventh video of the Xpdf series, we discuss and demonstrate the PDFfonts utility, which lists all the fonts used in a PDF file. In addition to the name of the font, it shows the font type and whether or not the font is embedded in the PDF file (and, if embedded, whether or not it is a subset), along with other font information that is discussed in the documentation file. It does this via a command line interface, making it suitable for use in batch files, programs, and scripts — any place where a command line call can be made.

1. Download the software


You may have already downloaded and unzipped the Xpdf tools while watching the first video in the Xpdf series, but if you haven't, then visit the Xpdf website. Click the Download link and then click the pre-compiled Windows binary ZIP archive to download the utilities for Windows.

Step1

2. Locate the documentation folder for the Xpdf utilities


Go to the folder where you unzipped the downloaded ZIP file and find the doc folder.

Step2

3. Read the documentation for the PDFfonts tool


Go into the doc folder and find the plain text file called pdffonts.txt.

Open it with any text editor, such as Notepad, and read it. This is the documentation for the PDFfonts tool.

Step3

4. Set up a test folder


Create a test folder.

Copy pdffonts.exe from the unzipped bin32 folder into your test folder.

Copy a couple of sample PDF files into your test folder, preferably ones with many different fonts.

Step4

5. Set up a command prompt for testing

2
LVL 19

Administrative Comment

by:Kyle Santos
Congratulations!  Your video has been Accepted and is now published on Experts Exchange.  Thank you for your contributions.
1
LVL 63

Author Comment

by:Joe Winograd, Fellow 2017
Hi Kyle,
Thanks for publishing and upvoting — both appreciated! Regards, Joe
1
Xpdf - PDFtoPNG - Command Line Utility to Convert a Multi-page PDF File into Separate PNG Files
In this sixth video of the Xpdf series, we discuss and demonstrate the PDFtoPNG utility, which converts a multi-page PDF file to separate color, grayscale, or monochrome PNG files, creating one PNG file for each page in the PDF. It does this via a command line interface, making it suitable for use in batch files, programs, and scripts — any place where a command line call can be made.

1. Download the software


You may have already downloaded and unzipped the Xpdf tools while watching the first video in the Xpdf series, but if you haven't, then visit the Xpdf website. Click the Download link and then click the pre-compiled Windows binary ZIP archive to download the utilities for Windows.

Step1

2. Locate the documentation folder for the Xpdf utilities


Go to the folder where you unzipped the downloaded ZIP file and find the doc folder.

Step2

3. Read the documentation for the PDFtoPNG tool


Go into the doc folder and find the plain text file called pdftopng.txt.

Open it with any text editor, such as Notepad, and read it. This is the documentation for the PDFtoPNG tool.

Step3

4. Set up a test folder


Create a test folder.

Copy pdftopng.exe from the unzipped bin32 folder into your test folder.

Copy a sample PDF file into your test folder. Of course, it will work fine with a one-page PDF file, but it is more instructive to test it with a multi-page PDF.

Step4

5. Set up a command prompt for testing


Open a command prompt window.

Navigate to your test folder.

Issue a DIR command in the command prompt to be sure that only two files are in it - the PDFtoPNG executable and the sample PDF file.

Step5

6. Run the PDFtoPNG utility

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Author Comment

by:Joe Winograd, Fellow 2017
Kyle,
Thanks for the fast publishing and the compliment — both appreciated! Regards, Joe
1
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Author Comment

by:Joe Winograd, Fellow 2017
Hi Tia Henderson,
I'm sure that you meant to endorse this video (rather than Kyle's comment that it was Accepted and my comment thanking Kyle). To endorse the video, you must click the thumbs-up icon that is right underneath the video steps (before this Comments section begins). Thanks, Joe
0
How to use the Windows Task Scheduler - An Introduction
The Task Scheduler is a powerful tool that is built into Windows. It allows you to schedule tasks (actions) on a recurring basis, such as hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, at log on, at startup, on idle, etc. This video Micro Tutorial is a brief introduction to the Task Scheduler. It was inspired by a recent question here at Experts Exchange from a member who wants to play a different song at four different times during the day (every day). The video uses that as the example, but the intention of the video is to explain the general creation of periodic tasks that can cover a broad range of user requirements. The video was produced in Windows 10, but the Task Scheduler user interface is nearly the same in Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8 (the Task Scheduler exists in Windows XP with similar functionality, but the user interface is different).

1. Run the Task Scheduler


In Windows 10, click the Start button and start typing task scheduler. By the time you get to the letter "k", you should see the Task Scheduler choice — click it.

There are different ways to run the Task Scheduler. For example, in Windows 7:
Start
All Programs
Accessories
System Tools
Task Scheduler


Step1

2. Create a new folder for your own tasks


Make sure Task Scheduler Library is selected/highlighted in the left pane (it should already be).

Click New Folder... in the Actions pane on the right, then give the new folder a name.

Step2

3. Create a new task in your new folder


Expand the Task Scheduler Library and select/highlight your new folder.

Click Create Task... in the Actions
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Expert Comment

by:Michael Okopedeghe
Thanks very Helpful and easy to follow.
Mike
0
LVL 63

Author Comment

by:Joe Winograd, Fellow 2017
You're welcome, Mike. And thanks to you for joining EE today, watching my video, and endorsing it — much appreciated! Regards, Joe
1
Xpdf - PDFdetach - Command Line Utility to Detach Attachments from PDF Files
In this fifth video of the Xpdf series, we discuss and demonstrate the PDFdetach utility, which is able to list and, more importantly, extract attachments that are embedded in PDF files. It does this via a command line interface, making it suitable for use in batch files, programs, and scripts — any place where a command line call can be made.

1. Download the software.


You may have already downloaded and unzipped the Xpdf tools while watching the first video in the Xpdf series, but if you haven't, then visit the Xpdf website. Click the Download link and then click the pre-compiled Windows binary ZIP archive to download the utilities for Windows.

Step1

2. Locate the documentation folder for the Xpdf utilities.


Go to the folder where you unzipped the downloaded ZIP file and find the <doc> folder.

Step2

3. Read the documentation for the PDFdetach tool.


Go into the <doc> folder and find the plain text file called <pdfdetach.txt>.

Open it with any text editor, such as Notepad, and read it. This is the documentation for the PDFdetach tool.

Step3

4. Set up a test folder.


Create a test folder.

Copy <pdfdetach.exe> from the unzipped <bin32> folder into your test folder.

Copy a sample PDF file that has attachments into your test folder (in the video and the screenshots below, the file is called test.pdf, which is a PDF file created from my EE article, Windows 10 uses YOUR computer to help distribute itself, but with some attachments added to it).

Step4

5. Set up a command prompt for testing.

4
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Expert Comment

by:NVIT
Hi Joe...

> A way to achieve that is to extract first with PDFdetach and then print the file to a PDF print driver.

That would work for me. Thanks!

Mahalo
1
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Author Comment

by:Joe Winograd, Fellow 2017
A`ole pilikia!
0
HTML5 and CSS3 Fundamentals
LVL 13
HTML5 and CSS3 Fundamentals

Build a website from the ground up by first learning the fundamentals of HTML5 and CSS3, the two popular programming languages used to present content online. HTML deals with fonts, colors, graphics, and hyperlinks, while CSS describes how HTML elements are to be displayed.

Xpdf - PDFinfo - Command Line Utility to Retrieve Page Count and Other Information from PDF Files
In this fourth video of the Xpdf series, we discuss and demonstrate the PDFinfo utility, which retrieves the contents of a PDF file's Info Dictionary, as well as some other information (metadata), including the page count. We show how to isolate the page count in a plain text file, and the same method may be used to isolate other metadata fields, such as the Author and PDF Producer. PDFinfo provides a command line interface, making it suitable for use in batch files, programs, and scripts — any place where a command line call can be made.

1. Download the software.


You may have already downloaded and unzipped the Xpdf tools while watching the first video in the Xpdf series, but if you haven't, then visit the Xpdf website. Click the Download link and then click the pre-compiled Windows binary ZIP archive to download the utilities for Windows.

Step1

2. Locate the documentation folder for the Xpdf utilities.


Go to the folder where you unzipped the downloaded ZIP file and find the <doc> folder.

Step2

3. Read the documentation for the PDFinfo tool.


Go into the <doc> folder and find the plain text file called <pdfinfo.txt>.

Open it with any text editor, such as Notepad, and read it. This is the documentation for the PDFinfo tool.

Step3

4. Set up a test folder.


Create a test folder.

Copy <pdfinfo.exe> from the unzipped <bin32> folder into your test folder.

Copy a sample PDF file into your test folder (in the video and the screenshots below, the file is called test.pdf, which is a PDF file created from my EE article, Windows 10 uses YOUR computer to help distribute itself).

Step4

5. Set up a command prompt for testing.

3
Introduction to PHP: Building the Form
The viewer will learn how to create a basic form using some HTML5 and PHP for later processing.

1. Set up your basic HTML file. Open your form tag and set the method and action attributes.


<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
	<head>
		<title>My first php script</title>
	</head>
	<body>
		<form method="post" action="process.php">

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2. Set up your first few inputs one for the name and the gender.

A simple set of radio buttons will do here.
<label>Name: <input type="name" name="fullname" placeholder="Enter your name here."></label>
<label>Gender: <input type="radio" name="gender" value="M" checked>Male  <input type="radio" name="gender" value="F">Female</label>

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3. Label the date of birth field, setup a few select boxes that will use PHP to loop through respectively to get the month, day and year.


<label>Birthday: <select name="month">
				<?php for($m=1; $m<=12; $m++){
							echo "<option value=".$m.">".$m."</option>";
				} ?>
				</select>/
				<select name="day">
				<?php for($d=1; $d<=31; $d++){
							echo "<option value=".$d.">".$d."</option>";
				} ?>
				</select>/
				<select name="year">
				<?php for($y=1880; $y<=2014; $y++){
							echo "<option value=".$y.">".$y."</option>";
				} ?></select>
			</label>

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4. Set up a field for the email address.


<label>E-mail: <input type="email" name="emailaddy" placeholder="Enter your best email address."></label>

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5. Label the randomized ID # as ID #. Set the variable for this ID number and put it into a hidden field.


<label>My ID #: <?php $nyid=rand(0,199999); echo $myid; ?>
			<input type="hidden" value="<?php echo $myid; ?>"></label>"][/step]
[step="6" title="Set your submit button and close out the form and page.

			<label><input type="submit" name="saveme" value="Send Profile"></label>
		</form>
	</body>
</html>

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2
Introduction to jQuery (Part 1)
The viewer will learn the basics of jQuery, including how to invoke it on a web page.

1. Reference your jQuery libraries

<script src="http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.10.2/jquery.min.js"></script>
<script src="http://code.jquery.com/ui/1.10.3/jquery-ui.js"></script>

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2. Include your new external js/jQuery file

<script src="js/mediasage.js"></script>

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3. Write your first lines of code to setup your site for jQuery.

jQuery(document).ready(function($){
});

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LVL 12

Expert Comment

by:Mortaza Doulaty
DOM stands for Document Object Model, not Direct Object Model.
1
How to Add a Watermark to an Image Using PHP (Part 2)
This tutorial will teach you the core code needed to finalize the addition of a watermark to your image. The viewer will use a small PHP class to learn and create a watermark.
1
Look For Files Using PHP
The viewer will learn how to look for a specific file type in a local or remote server directory using PHP.
0
Using PHP to Count Item Occurrences in Arrays
The viewer will learn how to count occurrences of each item in an array.
1
PHP, jQuery, and Form Actions
The viewer will learn how to dynamically set the form action using jQuery.
1

Expert Comment

by:Mamun Hoque
good tutorial (y)
0
Matching Tagged Data with PHP Regular Expressions
Learn how to match and substitute tagged data using PHP regular expressions. Demonstrated on Windows 7, but also applies to other operating systems. Demonstrated technique applies to PHP (all versions) and Firefox, but very similar techniques will work in other browsers.

1. Important note about parsing tagged data

2. Show how to find an element on an HTML page using Firefox developer tools

3. Show how to capture the tagged data using the PHP function preg_match

4. Show how to separate the tags from the enclosed data

5. Show how to use the PHP preg_replace function to replace a value with a new value

1
Xpdf - PDFtoText - Convert PDF Files to Plain Text Files
This third video of my Xpdf series discusses and demonstrates the PDFtoText utility, which converts PDF files into plain text files. It does this via a command line interface, making it suitable for use in batch files, programs, and scripts — any place where a command line call can be made.

You'll see that this video says it is "Part 3 of 3". However, after publishing the first three tutorials, I decided to do one for each of the other tools, as well as one for the Xpdf configuration file (xpdfrc). Links to all of the videos are in the first video in this series.

1. Download and install the software.

You may have already downloaded and installed the Xpdf tools while watching the first  or second video in the Xpdf series , but if you haven't, then visit the Xpdf website at:

http://www.foolabs.com/xpdf/

Click the Download link and then click the pre-compiled Windows binary ZIP archive to download the Xpdf utilities for Windows.
precompiled binaries

2. Locate the documentation folder for the Xpdf utilities.

Go to the folder where you unzipped the downloaded ZIP file and find the <doc> folder.
documentation folder

3. Read the documentation for the PDFtoText tool.

Go into the <doc> folder and find the plain text file called <pdftotext.txt>.

Open it with any text editor, such as Notepad, and read it. This is the documentation for the PDFtoText tool.
read me

4. Set up a test folder.

Create a test folder.

Copy <pdftotext.exe> from the unzipped <bin32> folder into your test folder.

Copy a sample PDF file into your test folder (in the video and the screenshots below, the file is called <RMP.pdf>).
test folder

5. Set up a command prompt for testing.

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LVL 28

Expert Comment

by:Andrew Leniart
Great tutorial series. This will be very handy for me!
0
LVL 63

Author Comment

by:Joe Winograd, Fellow 2017
Hi Andrew,
I'm glad to hear that my Xpdf series will be useful for you. This particular one, PDFtoText, is the one that I use the most in my custom programs. Cheers, Joe
P.S. Thanks for the endorsement!
0
Starting with Angular 5
LVL 13
Starting with Angular 5

Learn the essential features and functions of the popular JavaScript framework for building mobile, desktop and web applications.

Xpdf - Command Line Utilities for PDF Files
This first video Micro Tutorial in my Xpdf series introduces and describes Xpdf, a library containing nine command line utilities that perform various functions on PDF files. This video shows where the library is located and how to download it, discusses its licensing provisions, and provides a brief description of each of the nine modules.

Since all the utilities offer a command line interface, they are suitable for use in batch files, programs, and scripts — any place where a command line call can be made. For example, I have written many programs in the AutoHotkey scripting language that call the various Xpdf utilities via the AutoHotkey RunWait command.

This first video sets the stage for subsequent Micro Tutorials in the Xpdf series. You'll see that this video says it is "Part 1 of 3" (the second says, "Part 2 of 3"; the third, "Part 3 of 3"). However, after publishing the first three tutorials, I decided to do one for each of the other tools, as well as one for the Xpdf configuration file (xpdfrc), which is common to all nine utilities. Here are links to the other 10 five-minute video Micro Tutorials at Experts Exchange:

Xpdf - PDFimages - Command Line Utility to Extract Images from PDF Files
Xpdf - PDFtoText - Command Line Utility to Convert PDF Files to Plain Text Files
Xpdf - PDFinfo - Command Line Utility to Retrieve Page Count and Other Information from PDF Files
Xpdf - PDFdetach - Command Line Utility to Detach Attachments from PDF Files
7
LVL 28

Expert Comment

by:Andrew Leniart
Great video Joe! Excellent tool I had no idea existed.
0
LVL 63

Author Comment

by:Joe Winograd, Fellow 2017
Thanks, Andrew, I appreciate the compliment...and the endorsement! Regards, Joe
0
Python Programming: While and For Loops
Learn the basics of while and for loops in Python.

1. while loops are used for testing while, or until, a condition is met

2. The structure of a while loop is as follows: while <condition>: do something repeate

3. The break statement may be used to exit a while loop when a condition is met

4. for loops iterate through a sequence or range a specified amount

5. The structure of a for loop is as follows: for <every element> in a <a sequence or range>: do something

6. The continue statement may be used to exit an iteration of a for loop, but not the loop itself.

1
Python Programming: If Statements
Learn the basics of if, else, and elif statements in Python 2.7.

1. Use "if" statements to test a specified condition.


The structure of an if statement is as follows:
if <condition>:         
           do something

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2. Use "else" statements to allow the execution of an alternative, if the first condition is not met


The structure of an if, else statement is as follows:
if <condition>:
         do something     
else:
         do something different

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3. Use "elif" statements allow for the checking of multiple conditions.


The structure of an if, else, elif statement is as follows:    
if <condition>:
         do something     
elif <another condition>:
         do something different     
else:
         do something completely different

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6

Scripting Languages

27K

Solutions

21K

Contributors

A scripting language is a programming language that supports scripts, programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator. Scripting languages are often interpreted (rather than compiled). Primitives are usually the elementary tasks or API calls, and the language allows them to be combined into more complex programs. Environments that can be automated through scripting include software applications, web pages within a web browser, the shells of operating systems (OS), embedded systems, as well as numerous games. A scripting language can be viewed as a domain-specific language for a particular environment; in the case of scripting an application, this is also known as an extension language.