Software is any set of instructions that directs a computer to perform specific tasks or operations. Computer software consists of programs, libraries and related non-executable data (such as documentation). Computer software is non-tangible, contrasted with computer hardware, which is the physical component of computers. Software written in a machine language is known as "machine code". However, in practice, software is usually written in high-level programming languages than machine language. High-level languages are translated into machine language using a compiler or interpreter or a combination of the two.

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Combine and Split PDF Files Free by SysTools PDF Split & Merge

combine and split pdfSysTools introduce Free PDF Split & Merge software to divide and combine multiple PDF files. This tool is compatible with all versions of PDF files and supports all Windows operating systems. It is a freeware program that can be easily downloaded from the official website in order to combine and split PDF files. Some of the benefits of the tool are given below:

                                                                             1- Split PDF file by page, range, even and odd page
                                                                             2- Combine multiple PDF documents without any limitation
                                                                             3- Compatible with all versions of Windows OS i.e. 10, 8.1, 8, 7,
                                                                             4- No limitation on the number of PDF files to be merged
                                                                             5- Tool is simple and easy to use




Cloud Class® Course: Microsoft Exchange Server
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Cloud Class® Course: Microsoft Exchange Server

The MCTS: Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 certification validates your skills in supporting the maintenance and administration of the Exchange servers in an enterprise environment. Learn everything you need to know with this course.

Andy's VMware vSphere tip#23: Missed my vSphere Tips! Today lets discuss BACKUPS!

After visiting many clients, a high percentage, run BACKUPS, and have backups, but NEVER test a restore!

There is no point in making backups, if you never test restore weekly or monthly to check you can restore a VM, files or folders, and the procedure to do it. In the heat of the moment, when you are facing an emergency, do you really want to be left reading the manuals, on how to restore a VM, or files and folders.

So take some time out, and practice restoring VMs, files and folders using your backup software!


Think about it...

Have a Good Weekend.

If you would like to discuss this post further please post a question to the VMware Topic area.
Andy's VMware vSphere tip#21: End of Support Life for vSphere 5.5, which includes vSphere Hypervisor ESXi 5.5 and vCenter Server 5.5.

The official VMware KB is here...

I've seen many posts recently, Experts jumping in and posting, ESXi 5.5 is not supported after September 2018, which is a true statement, but it does not really help the Member posting a question, as to what the issue is today they are experiencing.

also... that is not really a hard and fast rule, Support for ESXi 5.5 CAN be extended if you purchase support.

"In the event you are unable to upgrade before the End of General Support (EOGS) and are active on Support and Subscription, you have the option to purchase extended support in one year increments for up to two years beyond the EOGS date. Visit VMware Extended Support for more information."  

"Technical Guidance for vSphere 5.5 is available until September 19, 2020 primarily through the self-help portal"

e.g. all the firmware, security and critical update patches, software will still be available for download, all VMware Kbs, and VMware Communities information will still be available.

What does this mean to you and your organization ?

1. Unless you are covered by a valid support and subscription, and purchased extended support, you will not be able to make a telephone support, or email support, or online support request for vSphere 5.5.

2. If you Support and Subscription has expired - not …
A couple of weeks ago I wrote about the immutable fluent object builder pattern, and how to increase semantic significance and clean code.
This is useful in object-oriented programming languages like java, c#, etc.
The resulting object builder could have a clean, fluent API that could look like this:
final Car pontiacMontana2007 = Car.builder()
But in many examples of such a builder pattern written in java, the API becomes slightly different, and simultaneously semantically less significant:
final Car pontiacMontana2007 = Car.builder()
Wait, what? Did the java developers just throw out the data type system, and reduce both Brand and Model to String, and both BuildYear and Seats to int?
Yes, yes they did.
But why?
Well, that's because of limitations forced upon them by the java language developers: in their infinite wisdom, they made the String and Integer classes final. And that means, that a data type for Brand, which SHOULD have subclassed String, CANNOT subclass String.
And that unfortunately has lead to 3 solutions:
1. Reimplement String in a non-final, extendable way;
2. Envelope a String value in a decorator class;
3. Give up and just use String.
Why am I making this point?
Because I want it understood that many design …
Andy's VMware vSphere tip#16: Difficult P2V, difficult Shrink! Sometimes old software is best, we had a client today, which had over provision a virtual machine disk, but had made a mistake, and it was using up their datastore, but what ever software they tried "VMware Converter", file level cloning failed, to read a disk sector, which it kept complaining about a disk error, but chkdsk and surface scans stated the disk had now errors, the virtual machine disk refused to defragment, and conventional third party utilities could not shrink the OS partition to complete any of the following tricks in these articles

HOW TO: Shrink or Reduce a VMware Virtual Machine Disk (VMDK) using VMware vCenter Converter Standalone v5.5.2

HOW TO: Shrink a VMware Virtual Machine Disk (VMDK) in 15 minutes

BUT, old software is often best, years ago (1995), we purchased the General Hardware-Oriented System Transfer software on disk, or often called GHOST!

Add a new disk virtual disk of the correct size, and complete a Disk to Disk CLONE with partition re-size to shrink to 40GB - SIMPLES!

(other third party products available but most failed due to a disk fault!)

If you would like to discuss this post further please post a question to the VMware Topic area.
Andy's VMware vSphere tip#6: [InstallationError] [Errno 28] No space left on device - updating from 6.5 U1 to 6.5 U2 (possible other versions as well!)

We were updating HPE Proliant Servers Generation 8 [G8], and it would appear as of writing HPE have still not released a Gen8 ESXi 6.5 U2 Image! So we had to use 6.5 U1 and updated to U2. [Please note always use the OEM version of ESXi for vendor servers, e.g. HPE, Dell, IBM/Lenovo, Fujitsu etc]

This might lead you to this VMware Kb -

But it does not appear to be anything to do with space on the device, and when you investigate there is plenty of storage space.

Here's a quick workaround..

 Install the vib manually, see here

1. cd /tmp

2. wget

3. esxcli software vib install -f -v /tmp/VMware_locker_tools-light_6.5.0-1.47.8285314.vib

Complete 6.5 U2 upgrade as normal.

4. esxcli software profile update -p ESXi-6.5.0-20180502001-standard -d

DevOps Training in Chennai

DevOps Training and supports
Orange TechnoMind provides professional software training in Chennai and online across the countries.  We offering 100% job oriented courses  for freshers and experience candidates.  Our course content always updated one and covered basic to advance level, trainee easily and quickly get knowledge  on subjects.

Our DevOps training is not just covered set of tools, covered what need to built continuous integration for business on on-premises and Cloud.

Orange TechnoMind providing DevOps technology supports for individuals and organization. Our experience professionals work as freelancer and provides their knowledge to setup DevOps successfully.
How Microsoft helped imprison a man for counterfeiting software it gives away for free

Wondering if he hadn't made these disks look like Dell's this would have made it to court.

I would guess he's either really annoyed someone or the DMCA supporters want a scalp.

He's organised, at his own cost, for 1000's of reinstallation DVDs for Windows 7 to be produced, in doing so he's had them made to look identical to the Dell DVDs that are shipped free when you buy a new computer.

This is where it gets messy legally.

Reinstall DVDs from manufacturers just contain software. They are provided "free" with a new PC.
(Actually there's a nominal cost to the PC manufacturer in manufacturing them but it works out at pennies - the convicted guy was creating these and his costs would have been a little higher as he was making 1000's while PC manufacturers make 1,000,000's). They have printed on them "Please do not make copies of this disk".

Windows software requires a license to use. When you buy your PC with Windows from Dell, Dell have bought a Windows license from Microsoft and are selling it on to you. The cost - around $20 compared to $140 for the full retail version.

The short version of the court case is two-fold - (1) Microsoft say they've lost out on 1,000's of $20 licenses AND (2) because the disks look identical to Dell's originals they …
We have a new branch that uses the QuickBooks pro 2017 software, they are getting the following message below to update quickbooks software.
i need to know how to upgrade the quickbook software. Please note the quickbook database is on a server in the datacenter that the quick books client connects to. Please advise.
LVL 103

Expert Comment

The update has already been downloaded. Just click on Install Now. The new update will work with your current Server Manager (assuming it to be V2017)

You should ask this in Q&A as there is no value to any of us in answering your posts.
LVL 44

Expert Comment

It seems I should explain what meant my sentence "Public forum is not good place to ask questions like this."...

QuickBooks is a paid software installed in a company which must have some policies about updates and upgrades. Such updates should not be allowed to users which do not know how to handle them.  How such user can recognize what is installing, what software displays the message and what to do at all?

To simply tell "Install it" just because the dialog window in the question is similar to the one displayed by the paid product can install whatever the attacker needs on your computer! Any click on your computer is at your own risk. Even the internet Ad closing by the X button can do unpredictable things...

Following is derived for the person which has computer background and which maintains software installations in your company/branch:

The first place where to ask is QuickBooks support ( They surely know the answer and you've prepaid your questions already.

The second place is regular question here as Brian B proposed. Go to and ask the question again.  DON'T FORGET to add  QuickBooks as the Topic and don't forget to add whether you are sure the dialog is from the QuickBooks software.
Intel is dropping plans to patch old CPU's for the Meltdown patch.

So it really is time for people to move on. New machines means better hardware security and Windows 10. It can easily be made to look and feel like Windows 7.

Time to upgrade software also to improve security.

Cloud Class® Course: C++ 11 Fundamentals
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Cloud Class® Course: C++ 11 Fundamentals

This course will introduce you to C++ 11 and teach you about syntax fundamentals.

gSuite help is still terrible.

I have several comments about how using paid support for Office 365 is far superior to the experience using gSuite including my comment on this article from 2015.

Yesterday's call to gSuite support reconfirms.  Problem is a user wants to have access to Android apps on his new Google Pixelbook. Going to settings on the Pixelbook to enable the feature is grayed out.  A call to Pixelbook support confirmed the issue is the user is a member of a business gSuite account and there is a feature that has to be turned on.  I was directed to call into gSuite. Calling gSuite support is about as helpful as talking to my 2 year old niece. The gSuite tech acted as if he had no knowledge of a Pixelbook. I had to explain several times it was a product of his own company. Even going down the Chromebook route didn't help. He could simply point to turning on a feature that was already set. Otherwise, I would have to call the Pixelbook Support.

I have called into office 365 support for many issues. Sometimes the issue went beyond the scope of what the tech should have helped for their own silo, but they still were able to spend 30 to 60 minutes on the phone to solve the issue with great patience and product knowledge.

After the sale support many times goes unnoticed or untested.  When evaluating a service or software, I will call in…
LVL 55

Author Comment

by:Scott Fell, EE MVE
Thanks for the nudge Andrew.  Perhaps I will do just that.
LVL 19

Expert Comment

by:Andrew Leniart
Please do Scott. I'll be more than happy to edit and get it published for you.

I think a lot of people may benefit from your experiences, and it may just be the push Google needs to provide some decent support.
More on the two "villians" too. It has a nice description, not overly technical (though inevitable at times) for understanding. Crux of it is remediation is really for CPU vendors to issue firmware updates to protect against these attacks. The OS and affected vendor will "support" with their release to reduce the attack surface or make it harder to exploit.

Unfortunately, there are no software patches or operating system mitigations that can fully mitigate the impacts of the Spectre attacks and the flaws being abused. Only saving grace is browser vendors have begun updating their browsers to disable certain features which make the Spectre attack feasible via JavaScript. If really paranoid, back to basic to disable active scripting like Javascript.
LVL 50

Expert Comment

I think the microcode patches will come through the system vendor, Dell, HP etc etc.  Intel will probably supply them with the patches to distribute.

As for the lawsuits that will be interesting.  Unless it can be proven that there is a significant slowdown those lawsuits will go nowhere.  And at this stage there is no real evidence of that.  The most likely candidates will be those who run VM instances in the cloud and we'll need to wait for those to occur.

It will be a pity if the lawsuits don't succeed because I'd love a new Core 2 Quad processor replacement ...
LVL 67

Author Comment

Agree. Nice.
Hi all
I have a win2000 server running bespoke software that obviously needs to be retired, so I am hoping to create a vhd file of this machine & run it on a 2008R2 server.
Not having done this before I need advice on firstly, can this be done? & secondly how to step through what is required to do this. The Microsoft website is confusing, to say the least.
What software would I need etc. Disk2VHD won't work on 200 as there is no VSS.

Hoping some kind person might be able to enlighten me.


Brian P.
LVL 26

Expert Comment

by:Brian B
Yes, but you have entered this as a post. It looks like you are asking for help. To get the best response from the Experts, you should probably re-submit this as a question using the "ask a question" button at the top of the page, or this link:

If you do ask a question, please post the link to it back here so others can find your question and help you more quickly.

Please see here for further details:
Immutable Class Builders
The other day I showed 1 way to make a Class #Builder more meaningful, #semantically, leveraging the #programming language's type system. Today, I'm going to address how to make them immutable, its benefits, and its drawbacks.
Class Builders typically use mutable architectures where the programming language allows. In #Java we often see the following model:
final Class Person {  
public final Name name;  
public final Address address;  
Person(final Builder builder) { =  
  this.address = builder.getAddress();  
final class Builder {  
public final Name name;
@Nullable private Address address;
private Builder(final Name name) { = name:  
  this.address = Address.empty();  
public static Builder named (final Name name) {  
  return new Builder(name);  
public Builder with (@Nullable final Address address) {
  this.address = (null == address) ? Address.empty() : address;
public Address getAddress () {
  return (null == this.address) ? Address.empty() : this.address;
public Person build () {  
  return new Person(this);
Whatever Person field is required, we find in the Builder's constructor. In the above example, that's Name.
Other fields are optional, and their value is added to a Person instance by using one if the Builder.with() instance methods.
Note how the Builder also features a …

Author Comment

by:A.E. Veltstra
Thank you, Brian! I'll look into that.

Author Comment

by:A.E. Veltstra
Anton Shipilev showed in 2014 that using all final fields and setting them in the class constructor did in fact slow down initialization when using Oracle's HotSpot Java compiler on ARM and PowerPC. I have yet to see whether his recommendations have been committed.

TeamViewer hacked: Here’s how to protect your systems

Hi there,

TeamViewer can be exploited using a vulnerability allowing users to switch between viewer and presenter side, or remotely control the server. If you are using TeamViewer in your enterprise, do act now.

Read more:
Type-safe class builders
The Builder design pattern for software architecture has found quite some traction among people who read the design patterns book by the Gang of 4, as well as those who seek a more fluent, clean-code approach. Oddly enough, these 2 approaches conflict. In this article I'll focus on the latter approach.
Uses for the Fluent Builder pattern include reduction of nullable constructor parameters of the target class, reduction of the number of constructors of the target class, reduction of the amount of parameters for constructors of the target class, and providing semantically meaningful method names to specify parameter values for the constructors of the target class.
And I find that in the latter use, implementations tend to be lacking.
For instance, a typical example is shown in Lokesh Gupta's Builder article over on HowToDoInJava. Read it.
Using that Builder reads like this (I have altered it slightly):
final User lokesh = new User.UserBuilder("Lokesh", "Gupta").mice(1).desk(14).monitors(3).build();
All the hallmarks of a fluent API are there, aren't they?
Well. Not really.
See, its method mice(int) doesn't signal what its effect will be. "Mice" is just a noun. Not a verb. This is common in Java POJO design, but it shouldn't be here. For self-describing code, I also expect that a setter method signals its effect. Something like setMice(int).
But what does that number signify? A type? An amount? Something else? Let's …
The future of ergonomics! Probably.

To nerd it up for us: Imagine a keyboard made to exactly match the way your hand moves.
This is my school project / assignment scenario - I have to draw a Logical Network Design...NEED HELP

The rollout of the wireless network has been suspended for now, but the stock analysis tool is being implemented. It is to be called My Stock Analysis Tool (MSAT). MSAT is going to use a three-tier client-server architecture. The tiers will be a web browser at the client end, a separate web server tier, and the MSAT server that performs application logic and all the data storage and access logic. In this way, there is no issue with installing/supporting a software client on end-user computers. Both customers and DRUB staff will use MSAT through a web-based interface, although staff may see extra options. Apart from accessing MSAT, staff also use Microsoft spreadsheet and word processing software on their computers (Windows XP PCs and laptops) for preparing reports, with work-in-progress files stored on staff computers.
LVL 36

Expert Comment

by:Rob Henson
Snowbella, well done for being honest and up-front that this is a school project; that will help experts guide you rather than propose answers as they would for normal questions.

However, to get better assistance you need to raise this as a question using the big blue button at the top of the page or this link:
Is there any downloadable software for Windows or for other devices connected to our network (such as cell phones)that would detect devices that are sending out SPAM.  Our internet provider has suspended our outbound email services until they know that we've fixed the problem.  I'd like to test all devices on the network to find out the source of the spamming.  Any ideas?  
LVL 15

Expert Comment

by:Ben Personick (Previously QCubed)
Setup an SMTP server (such as the free one included in windows under IIS) to act as a relay.

Point all of your actual applications that sdnd mail to this relay.

block all devices (except the IP pf the mail relay) from having port 25 ourbound.

Now you can be pretty muxh assured that anything else which is sending email is blocked, and you can review the smtp logs of all devices which de relay through your local smtp relay server, allowing tou to troubleshoot connectivity and locate any abusive systems.
LVL 26

Expert Comment

by:Brian B
You have entered this as a post, but it looks like it is a question. To get the best response from the Experts, you should probably re-submit this as a question using the "ask a question" button at the top of the page, or this link:

Please see here for further details:
Cloud Class® Course: SQL Server Core 2016
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Cloud Class® Course: SQL Server Core 2016

This course will introduce you to SQL Server Core 2016, as well as teach you about SSMS, data tools, installation, server configuration, using Management Studio, and writing and executing queries.

Open source cloud
Foss is a very good open source cloud support software like other software openstack,cloudstack,euckaly plus,synnefo,openqrm,openshift,cloudfoundry, docker.FOSS is more realiable and easy to install.
I see this over and over and over in here:  "Windows 10 forces me to update and my decade old legacy software won't work with the newest updates"

I wonder if these poor souls can connect the dots.

They turned off Windows 7 Updates to keep their legacy software running, and then they complained to Microsoft that their machine was hacked. It was hacked because security updates were turned off.

Microsoft's response:  "We have had enough!  New systems will update like it or not"

Is this any surprise to anyone?
LVL 53

Expert Comment

by:Jackie Man
Pull off the access to the Internet is the only way to keep legacy application working...
Cyber News Rundown: Edition 11/10/17

UK-Based Cryptocurrency Hit By Cyberattack

Prior to the official launch of Electroneum, a UK-based cryptocurrency that uses smartphones for its mining process, was targeted by a DDoS attack that shut down both the website and the app for several days. The attack effectively blocked all users from accessing their accounts, as the entire network was forced offline, to ensure the safety of investors’ funds.

Canadian University Held for Ransom

In the past week, officials have been working with affected students to secure their personal information after hackers breached the university’s systems and gained access to student records. The university has since taken its email system offline, as the hackers were spreading the leaked information throughout the email lists. Along with the data circulation, the hackers also demanded the university pay a large ransom of roughly 23,000 USD within 48 hours, though officials are still uncertain when the breach itself occurred.

WaterMiner Cryptocurrency Mod for GTA 5

As more cryptocurrency miners are embedded in software, one Russian hacker has gone a step further by exploiting a mod for the popular game Grand Theft Auto 5. The exploit silently uses a computer’s power to mine digital currency and, with the help of a modified version of the XMRig miner, can hide itself if it suspects monitoring software is active.

More on the Webroot blog here.
What can you benefit from moving Program files from C drive to D drive?

Can you simply move a program file from C: to D: ? In Windows, programs aren’t single files. Often, they’re not even found in a single folder, but rather in dozens of places on the hard drive. The file locations are referenced troughout Windows, which means that moving any of them would cause the program to fail. A simple file-move operation will be unsuccessful. Or will you manually uninstalling them and reinstalling to the D drive? Obviously, it’s not a good way especailly when there are a lot of applications installed on C drive.

Then, what is the best way? I think a third-party data migration software can make things much easier. Such programs are usually capable of dragging and dropping the program files from C drive to D drive safely and quickly. Here, EaseUS Todo PCTrans is recommended for its easy-to-use feature. It can help you transfer data and application to new PC/OS in simple steps in Windows XP/Vista/ 7/8/8.1/10 & Server 2003/2008/2012. All programs files like Facebook, Photoshop, Movie Maker, installed games, etc. that you downloaded from website and regarded as third-party software are supported.

ToDo PCTrans

Expert Comment

I would uninstall and reinstall the programs.  As you said, files are stored in different locations on the C drive, but there are registry entries that are created in every program's installation as well that point to those files and directories.  There maybe software that analyzes the software completely to move it, but if you have the software, I would uninstall and reinstall and pick your D drive and you won't have to worry about the software missing anything.

The advantage of installing on a different drive is if you are running out of room on your C drive, which can cause a slow down in your PCs operation.  If you have the room on the C, I would leave them on C, unless you are trying to organize your drives by having an app drive.

Most transfer software that I have used has been to transfer a complete drive to a new drive, not selected programs.  The transfer software images the disk and transfers it to the new drive (usually done because I've purchased a larger drive for my C drive).
LVL 16

Expert Comment

by:William Fulks
This reads more like an article than a question. Did you post it in the wrong category?
Looking for some feedback regarding whether or not to upgrade to the iPhone 8.
Pro: Financially, under Verizon's new billing system, it's only ~$2 more/month for the iPhone 8 compared to the iPhone 7 and as fast as they release new phones, it makes sense to get a newer version, if possible, so that the machine will work well with software releases.
Con: The new charging method of the iPhone 8 worries me. Wonder if the glass backing will make this phone more susceptible to breaks.

I've done some research (like this article) but curious for opinions one way or another to help me in this purchase conundrum.

Administrative Comment

by:Erin Wooddell
iPhone 6, Verizon. I'm about 9 months overdue for my 2-year upgrade.

Expert Comment

Verizon's 'upgrades' are not what they used to be.  All you're being enticed to do is to is get a new phone and pay them monthly on their Edge plan.  That's fine.  I don't like two year agreements anyway.  And the phone trade in can be lucrative if you don't mind having an added monthly payment to your bill.
Go to Verizon's website and login to your account.  You should be able to get a nice trade in value for that phone towards an 8.  

I watched the Apple keynote a while back about the iPhone 8.

Start at 55:55

'Most durable glass phone in a smart phone ever'
'water and dust resistant'
'better retina display'
'new speakers'
and on and on.

Sounds like a great phone to have and I would be interested in getting one when I have enough money haha.

iPhone X imo won't be worth getting unless you're adamant about using their facial recognition AR heh.  Its so weird to me they went from 8 to 10.  *shrug*






Software is any set of instructions that directs a computer to perform specific tasks or operations. Computer software consists of programs, libraries and related non-executable data (such as documentation). Computer software is non-tangible, contrasted with computer hardware, which is the physical component of computers. Software written in a machine language is known as "machine code". However, in practice, software is usually written in high-level programming languages than machine language. High-level languages are translated into machine language using a compiler or interpreter or a combination of the two.