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The Windows operating systems have distinct methodologies for designing and implementing networks, and have specific systems to accomplish various networking processes, such as Exchange for email, Sharepoint for shared files and programs, and IIS for delivery of web pages. Microsoft also produces server technologies for networked database use, security and virtualization.

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Measuring Server's processing rate with a simple powershell command. The differences in processing rate also was recorded in different use-cases, when a server in free and busy states.
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[Webinar] Cloud Security
LVL 11
[Webinar] Cloud Security

In this webinar you will learn:

-Why existing firewall and DMZ architectures are not suited for securing cloud applications
-How to make your enterprise “Cloud Ready”, and fix your aging DMZ architecture
-How to transform your enterprise and become a Cloud Enabler

Bad Influence
An article on effective troubleshooting
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Resolve DNS query failed errors for Exchange
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This article offers some helpful and general tips for safe browsing and online shopping. It offers simple and manageable procedures that help to ensure the safety of one's personal information and the security of any devices.
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LVL 36

Expert Comment

by:Loganathan Natarajan
Comment Utility
What about storing cpanel, or important logins to re-login often? shall we store it in the browser?
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LVL 1

Author Comment

by:Kiefer Dunham
Comment Utility
Hi Loganathan. I very much enjoy the convenience of storing my usernames and passwords in my browser for several of the websites that I frequently visit. Most of the time this practice is very acceptable and carries little risk of a breach in the security of your personal information. However, I would not recommend doing so if you share any of your devices with others. In the end, it is really at the user's discretion. If you save all of your usernames and passwords to a browser account such as those offered by say Google Chrome, then all that a hacker has to do is find out that one username and password to have instant access to all your other accounts. There is an old saying. "Don't put all your eggs in one basket." I believe it applies here. There is always some risk. Though, the risk is minimal in this circumstance. I hope this helps.
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I'm a big fan of Windows' offline folder caching and have used it on my laptops for over a decade.  One thing I don't like about it, however, is how difficult Microsoft has made it for the cache to be moved out of the Windows folder.  Here's how to do it.
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LVL 66

Expert Comment

by:Jim Horn
Comment Utility
Very well written, for the complexity of the subject matter it was pretty easy to follow along.  Voting Yes.
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Trying to figure out group policy inheritance and which settings apply where can be a chore.  Here's a very simple summary I've written which might help.  Keep in mind, this is just a high-level conceptual overview where I try to avoid getting bogged down in the details.
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LVL 66

Expert Comment

by:Jim Horn
Comment Utility
Nice article on a large Active Directory and SQL Server permissions issue that DBA's work with a lot.  Nicely illustrated as well.  Voting Yes.
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LVL 7

Expert Comment

by:Yashwant Vishwakarma
Comment Utility
Nice article Joseph :)
got some idea about active directory concepts.
Voted YES.
1
Are you one of those front-line IT Service Desk staff fielding calls, replying to emails, all-the-while working to resolve end-user technological nightmares? I am! That's why I have put together this brief overview of tools and techniques I use in order to make my day a little more efficient.
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This is the first one of a series of articles I’ll be writing to address technical issues that are always referred to as network problems. The network boundaries have changed, therefore having an understanding of how each piece in the network  puzzle works will help troubleshoot any network issue.
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Expert Comment

by:Linda Saulnier
Comment Utility
Very good article. I learned DNS in school, but now that I am in a working environment, I have been learning how DNS works first hand, and I really enjoyed your article. Thank you.
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LVL 7

Author Comment

by:jorge diaz
Comment Utility
Thank you Linda.  Yes, DNS has always been and will always be (at least for the foreseeable future) relevant.
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We recently endured a series of broadcast storms that caused our ISP to shut us down for brief periods of time. After going through a multitude of tests, we determined that the issue was related to Intel NIC drivers on some new HP desktop computers we'd recently purchased.

The Problem

The broadcast storm would occur if the desktop PC went into sleep mode for an extended period of time. We had one PC push out several gigs of network traffic in a matter of seconds. Strangely, we had eight new PC's all on a configuration bench and all were in sleep mode but only three of them were causing the storm. The randomness of the problem made it that much more difficult to diagnose.

This problem first popped up around a year ago with the Intel i217-LM NIC drivers. Some users on a Cisco message board were suggesting that the solution was to disable IPv6, but this did not work. In fact, we disabled IPv6 across our whole network thinking this would stop the broadcast storms but we got another one the very next day. What's so odd about all this is that you have the leading manufacturer of PC's (HP) using a motherboard with one of the leading manufacturers of NIC drivers (Intel) and all running the world's most popular desktop PC OS (Windows) and the problem stil persists.

The Solution

Upgrading the NIC drivers is the only solution here. However, you can't count on Windows Update to give it to you. This means you nead to visit Intel's site
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LVL 15

Author Comment

by:William Fulks
Comment Utility
These were all Windows 7 Professional 64-bit PC's.
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LVL 8

Expert Comment

by:Senior IT System Engineer
Comment Utility
Cool, thanks for sharing.
glad that you're resolved / share the issue here as well.
0
Many of us in IT utilize a combination of roaming profiles and folder redirection to ensure user information carries over from one workstation to another; in my environment, it was to enable virtualization without needing a separate desktop for each user. It's also an effective way to make sure users who give no thought as to the proper place to save a document don't lose data, and to prevent data from being stolen or lost in the event a workstation dies or is stolen.

However, the biggest battle I have fought in maintaining our new "cloud" environment has been the Saved Games folder. I'm unsure which of the Microsoft security gurus decided this folder needed to be even more tightly protected than the .net Framework folder, yet I am constantly having users call me with error messages on the screen to say they can't reach their AppData folder because the Saved Games folder has messed up the permissions inheritance in the user's profile. 

When I check the permissions, all is fine - the appropriate accounts have the proper permissions, and the user is listed as the owner of the profile folder. But enforce ownership or inheritance on subcontainers and more often than not the message, "You do not have permission to read the contents of Saved Games. Do you want ... Full Control?", appears.  Of course, answering 'yes' accomplishes nothing as not even the server or domain administrator accounts can do anything with this folder without expressly taking ownership of Saved Games
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Microsoft Certification Exam 74-409
LVL 1
Microsoft Certification Exam 74-409

Veeam® is happy to provide the Microsoft community with a study guide prepared by MVP and MCT, Orin Thomas. This guide will take you through each of the exam objectives, helping you to prepare for and pass the examination.

The Need
In an Active Directory enviroment, the PDC emulator provide time synchronization for the domain. This is important since Active Directory uses Kerberos for authentication.  By default, if the time difference between systems is off by more than five minutes, network login and authentication fails. I am not sure if anyone has ran into this problem or not. There seems to be various reasons for time sync problems, but I found this an odd problem\solution. Recently, as part of the move off of Windows Server 2003 domain controllers, I had to move the FSMO roles from our 2003 DC’s to 2008. The 2003 server was set to sync its time, and therefore the domain, against a Cisco switch. I made a screen capture of the current settings as shown below:

NTP1.jpgAs per a number of Microsoft Knowledge Base articles, I manually configured the new time servers via the command line with the following command:
 
W32tm /config /manualpeerlist: /syncfromflags:manual /reliable:yes /update
Net stop w32time
Net start w32time

Open in new window


However, two days later, I receive a call about authentication problems. It seems the time on all of the systems was off by 20 minutes, even the time on the new PDC Emulator. When running the command:
 
w32tm /query /status

Open in new window

 the server indicated it was performing its synchronization from the local CMOS clock.

ntp2.jpgSince this server was running in a virtual environment, my first thought was to verify it was not syncing against the host, which is was not. Next, I checked the configuration via the command line, which also indicated it was receiving the information from the local CMOS clock. 

ntp3.jpgntp4.jpg
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Expert Comment

by:Justin Moore
Comment Utility
Great article. Very informative.
0
 

Expert Comment

by:Jeff Yentz
Comment Utility
Awesome article Rodney!  The 0x8 was missing on mine.  Put it in and voila!  Thanks!
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A common practice in small networks is making file sharing easy which works extremely well when intra-network security is not an issue. In essence, everyone, that is "Everyone", is given access to all of the shared files - often the entire C: drive on every computer in the network. A common practice in Peer to Peer networking is not having a computer running a Windows Server operating system. In the absence of a designated and capable Server, one is reliant on a peer to peer network to reach the files they need. Every computer on the network is more or less equal in terms of capabilities while remaining subject to unique settings.

Peer to peer networks are VERY common in small offices.  It's difficult for small organizations to justify the cost of an extra computer with a relatively expensive operating system such as Windows Server 2010, let alone afford the professional configuration and ongoing maintenance of a specialized system. As long as files can be shared throughout the organization and security requirements are modest, a Server-based system can be hard to justify.

The purpose of this paper is to serve the needs of those who operate peer to peer networks and want to have defined levels or partitions for file sharing. Their purposes could be different but here we’ll assume that their objectives more or less fit into this list:
-      Some files are confidential and should only be accessible by the owners or top management.
-      Some files are confidential and…
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LVL 26

Author Comment

by:Fred Marshall
Comment Utility
???
Previous status
???
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LVL 26

Author Comment

by:Fred Marshall
Comment Utility
Ah!  Thank you.
0
This article is in response to a question here at Experts Exchange. The Original Poster (OP) requires a utility that will accept a list of IP addresses as input, PING each of the IP addresses in the list, and send an email via SMTP to a support group when the PING is not successful on an IP address.

The method presented in this article requires AutoHotkey, an excellent (free!) programming/scripting language. The quick explanation for installing AutoHotkey is to visit its website and click the big blue Download button. A more comprehensive explanation is to read my EE article, AutoHotkey - Getting Started. After installation, AutoHotkey will own the AHK file type, supporting the solution discussed in the remainder of this article.

The utility takes as input a plain text file with each IP address on a separate line, such as:

192.168.0.123
192.168.0.456
192.168.0.789


The utility reads the file with the list of IP addresses and PINGs each one. It redirects the output of the PING command to a text file (via the command line ">" operator). It then looks for the five most common PING errors anywhere in the PING output, namely:

Destination Host Unreachable
Ping request could not find host
Request Timed Out
TTL Expired in Transit
Unknown Host


If the utility finds any of these, it sends an email via SMTP with PING Error Notification as the Subject and with an email Body
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LVL 23

Expert Comment

by:Thomas Grassi
Comment Utility
Joe,

Just tested,

Works great two errors in my test and only one email.

My next phase will be to get email to get thru my exchange server.

Thanks again

If I get the exchange server code working I will post here for you.
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LVL 56

Author Comment

by:Joe Winograd, EE MVE 2015&2016
Comment Utility
Tom,
Great to hear that the new code works for you. Documenting the settings needed for Exchange will be very helpful. Good luck!
0
Enterprise networks where VoIP phones have been deployed frequently use port configurations that allow both a computer and an IP phone to be plugged into the same switch port but use different VLANs. On Cisco equipment I'm referring to the "native VLAN" and "voice VLAN" assignments. This is a really convenient configuration, but may be problematic when you deploy IPv6.

If both your native and voice VLANs are configured on an IPv6 network and you are using IPv6 stateless address autoconfiguration (SLAAC), a Windows client plugged into on of these ports will probably self-configure addresses on BOTH VLANs. The address on the voice VLAN is will probably be unusable for anything but VoIP and may cause problems if your Windows client advertises this address through dynamic DNS registration or LLMNR. You don't want your Windows computers doing this!

The reason this happens is that many Windows network adapter drivers in their default VLAN-unaware configuration simply take the voice VLAN traffic, remove the VLAN tags, and pass it off to Windows just like it was sent on the native VLAN. Windows' IPv6 auto-configures itself on the voice VLAN because it is receiving the IPv6 router advertisements (RAs) from that network. (This does not seem to be a problem in OS X.)

So, how to fix this? The solution will vary depending on your network adapter, but what you have to do is tell the driver to either leave the VLAN tags intact or tell it to only listen on the native VLAN. Broadcom …
1
Greetings, Experts!

First let me state that this website is top notch. I thoroughly enjoy the community that is shared here; those seeking help and those willing to sacrifice their time to help. It is fantastic.

I am writing this article at the suggestion of a fellow Expert (yobri) after a couple of threads regarding imaging of new machines in a domain (Windows 2K3 or 2K8) environment.

I am sure that all of us sysadmins have experienced the moment of realization: you have to reinstall. And if you haven't prepared for the situation, you know what you have in store:

Finding the stupid disk.
Installing Windows.
Waiting.
Registering Windows.
Waiting.
Waiting.
Waiting.
UPDATING WINDOWS.
WAAAAIIITING.
Rejoining the domain.
Installing all your software.
Dying of boredom.
Did I mention waiting?

No. Thank. You.

Let me take you back to last summer. The school I work at hadn't reinstalled for years. The old admin was gone, it was my job to get the computers running in tip top shape. But I did NOT want to go through all of that 100 times over.

That was the point that Windows Deployment Services entered into my universe.

Windows Deployment Services is a MMC plugin for Windows Server (2K3 or 2K8) that allows you to capture images from completed …
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LVL 23

Expert Comment

by:Brian Gee
Comment Utility
Very nice and thorough write-up! Thanks jonahzona!
0
Have you ever set up your wireless router at home or in the office to find that you little pop-up bubble in the bottom right-hand corner of Windows read "IP Conflict - One of more computers on the network have been assigned the following IP address"? Well then... you have yourself an IP address conflict! So... what do you do to fix it? Sure, you could turn off one of the computers with the conflict so the other could use it... but that might suck for the person with a computer and a blank screen... chances are... that person is you... and that's why you are here on EE. You need a fix for your problem. I'm here to help.

Every computer on the network needs a unique IP address to be identified by the other computers on the network. What happens sometimes, is Windows attempts to procure an IP address that is already in use on the network. More often than not, it usually starts using IP addresses that start with 192.168.11.x or 192.168.1.x where the 'x' is a number between 2 and 100 that usually represents the number of computers using the router, plus one. If you have 5 computers on the same router, then your IP addresses could be 192.168.11.2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. You can set your IP addresses up as "static IP addresses" with this tutorial. You could set it to something like 192.168.11.9 so that when your cousin comes over to the house with his laptop, s/he doesn't take up an IP address that is typically used by one of your computers in sleep or hibernate mode. Sound like …
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LVL 5

Author Comment

by:Justin Merrill, MBA
Comment Utility
I find that most people are intimidated by router configuration options. It's bad enough they have to plug something in, or enter a network key, NOW they have to set up machines to give specified IP addresses too? I wrote this article for the "network technology challenged". Anyone with a basic grasp on how a router works will likely find this article trite and overly simplified. When I have to give people tech support over the phone to help them through problems, I considered 2 things: The level of skill of the caller, and my time. If it's easier for me to say "Right-click, click copy. Now click Start, and click Run. Now right-click, and then click paste." than it is for me to say "Control + C, Start + R, Control + V." and have to repeat myself over and over, and be unsure that the user heard "C" and not "Z" or any other letter of the alphabet. Additionally, most people who need help with their network issues probably don't know all those "newfangaled keyboard shortcut thingys" even if they have been around for well over a decade. I know it seems a bit condescending to a "techie person", but I find that non-techie people appreciate having things explained to them like you would tell an 8 year old. I learn such tactic while being annoyed and sarcastic with a client that was totally clueless. For anyone that has ever worked at a tech support call center, yes, those are the people who think the CD and DVD-Rom drivers are fancy actually cup holders, the people that think the internet IS the computer itself, and that there is no need to plug the computer power supply into the wall since the monitor is already on. I'm not being insulting, I'm just being honest. I am just as clueless when it comes to where 700 Billion dollars of Federal Funding goes to businesses that are failing, Pop Culture, and World History. If be tickled pink if someone could get me up to speed on a question I had about any of the above topics in a language and format that I recognize and understand.

0
 
LVL 5

Author Comment

by:Justin Merrill, MBA
Comment Utility
In response to the following:

"All routers at home by default are configured for DHCP (and every network that I work on also uses DHCP because managing Static IP Addresses is a major overhead and headache), so you would have to re-program a router to stop DHCP from being used and that is the bit that I don't understand.  Why would anyone want to pick Static IP's on a network (by default) over and above a dynamic one?

Sure - you might need to fix one computer's IP Address so that you could open a port to a specific device, but that can be fixed on the router so that the same address is given to the same device every time and thus avoiding an IP conflict in the first place."


I will try to focus on these parts individually....

"you would have to re-program a router to stop DHCP from being used and that is the bit that I don't understand."

I've never had to stop DHCP from being used by the router when I configure a PC in the way I have in the article. DHCP will USUALLY give the PC the address that I set up on it, and ONLY that IP address. The downside of doing it this way is that when an update for a network device driver is installed, it sometimes removed the configuration. I wouldn't want to set up 5 computers this way, let alone 500, but having 3 to 5 computers in a house using the same internet connection is not all that unrealistic. In the house I lived in while I was earning my MBA we had 6 PCs. When any of the PCs would hibernate for any length of time, they would lose their IP address and a different PC would try to acquire it. When the PC with the old IP address would "un-hibernate", it would try to obtain the same IP address it had before, and cause internet issues galore! It wasn't until I manually configured at least 3 of the "problematic PCs" network IP addresses as I describe in the article was I able to prevent this issue from reoccurring. In theory, DCHP works perfectly. In application, Windows and network adapter drivers don't always release old IP addresses.

"you might need to fix one computer's IP Address so that you could open a port to a specific device"
I have also found that if multiple PCs are connecting to similar services like MagicJack, torrent softwares, P2P file sharing, Media Servers (TVersity, Netflix, etc.) fixing the PCs IP addresses helps to keep the correct IP address in the router configuration. It's an extra step I use when I configure my router to provide me with a way to tell (or remember) which PCs have which IP addresses (and MAC addresses) manually assigned.

"that can be fixed on the router so that the same address is given to the same device every time and thus avoiding an IP conflict in the first place"
While I agree with you 123512%, it's the same issue as to why people wear tires out on cars, and get crappy gas mileage. They know  there is a way to make it better, or prevent problems, but they either don't know exactly how, or just don't care enough to learn... and call up guys like you to tell them how to fix the problem. You know what you are doing, you know your way around dozens of router configurations and their various firmware versions and interfacing methods. Windows is Windows. It rarely changes from PC to PC in a drastic way from version to version (Except for Vista when it first came out). People know Windows, and they can learn how do fix their own issues while sitting in their underwear on a Saturday afternoon searching the web and finding THIS ARTICLE that speaks their language and provides screenshots for an operating system THEY KNOW, rather than say my Buffalo router, or some other higher-end types out there.

Anyway, that's a bit of an explanation as to why I take the approach I do.

- J
0
A brief overview to explain gateways, default gateways and static routes OR NO - you CANNOT have two default gateways on the same server, PC or other Windows-based network device.

In simple terms a gateway is formed when a computer such as a server or PC has a network connection between two or more networks or subnets. Generally, such a connection is created by the host server or PC having two or more network cards installed and each having an IP address and subnet mask from a different IP address range.

A Default Gateway is simply the IP Address that a server or PC will send traffic to if it does not know of a more specific gateway to use.

An example might be as per the following taken from two of my own Windows 2003 R2 servers called GW1 and GW2.

Server GW1:
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
|Interface|IP Address    |Mask          |Default Gateway         |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
|Nic 1:   |192.168.0.222 |255.255.255.0 |{Intentionally Blank}   |
|Nic 2:   |10.168.0.2    |255.255.255.0 |10.168.0.1              |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+

Open in new window

Server GW2:
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
|Interface|IP Address    |Mask          |Default Gateway         |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
|Nic 1:   |192.168.0.6   |255.255.255.0 |192.168.0.222	         |
|Nic 2:   |192.168.5.1   |255.255.255.0 |{Intentionally Blank}   |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+

Open in new window

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LVL 18

Expert Comment

by:Ravi Agrawal
Comment Utility
Hi Keith, Nice Article, see this Line

"The reason for the failure is that the Server GW1 knows nothing about the network on 195.168.5.0 as no route information has been provided."

I think it needs to be changed to-

"The reason for the failure is that the Server GW1 knows nothing about the network on 192.168.5.0 as no route information has been provided."

Very good article, I voted yes earlier and referenced it in this thread.http://www.experts-exchange.com/Networking/Misc/Q_24993507.html#a26094187

Ravi.
0
 
LVL 15

Administrative Comment

by:Eric AKA Netminder
Comment Utility
Keith,

Two Page Editors agree that this should be awarded EE-Approved.

Congratulations!

ericpete
Page Editor
0
Sometimes you might need to configure routing based not only on destination IP address, but also on a combination of destination IP address (or hostname) and destination port number. I will describe a method how to accomplish this with free tools.

The situation when you might need it is very rare, especially on Windows machines, but still it might happen. For example your user might be connected to external VPN and IP addresses of DNS servers will change. Also there might be some resource that is accessible from the Internet and from corporate network.

From the Internet, it is accessible from external IP 1.1.1.1 and from a corporate network it is accessible from 192.168.2.1 IP (for example). So while connected to VPN name of this site will always resolve to external IP. Also there might be some resource that is accessible only from corporate network and is accessible on the same DNS name, but on a different port.

So you might want to forward all traffic destined to this port to internal IP 192.168.2.1 and all traffic destined to default port to external IP. Forwarding of traffic to different IPs based on destination IP and port number is called policy based routing. It is easily implemented on Linux/ Unix systems and on Cisco routers, but is unavailable on Windows systems. Here I want to tell you about the trick that can implement policy based routing on Windows and this solution is completely free.

First you need to install Microsoft loopback Adapter (reboot …
0
 
LVL 3

Author Comment

by:TarasShumylo
Comment Utility
Of course this this very rear situation and I just want to describe technology, because I have seen a lot of questions on the web on how to do it, but there was no solution.

I invented this, because I have such rear situation:
user connected to customer VPN, while physically connected to corporate network, therefore addresses of DNS servers changed. We have one local intranet site for example car.com. It is available from intranet through IP 192.168.1.2 (for example) and from Internet from IP 1.1.1.1 (for example). While connected to customer VPN site car.com is resolving to external IP 1.1.1.1 (which is also available from corporate network). Now there is another service on site car.com, that works on port 7070. So the address is car.com:7070. But this service is unavailable from Internet, only from corporate network. So I need that user can go to car.com:7070, while connected to customer VPN (with external DNS servers). I could modify hosts file so that car.com will always resolve to intranet IP 192.168.1.2. But then site car.com will be unavailable from Internet. This is laptop and user wants to have site car.com available from Internet. Also I could go to site car.com:7070 by IP address, for example 192.168.1.2:7070, but it is even more complecated. When user click on link that leads to car.com:7070 it is actually redirected to car.com:7070 site. The link is car.com:8080 and it returns http 302 response (temporarily moved) with address car.com:7070 and in address bar there is some hash (I think from Active directory), without which authentication on site car.com:7070 fails. So the the response http 302 from link car.com:8080 is like this car.com:7070/hash=jhtyt5vy6%V%^VI^&%VI&^%VI&^%. Without this hash, if user just go to car.com:7070 or 192.168.1.2:7070 authentication fails. User of-course can catch 302 response with some software, for example Fiddler and substitute IP, instead of words car.com and paste it to browser, but it is not convenient to do every time. So I developed this solution, based on this situation, because it needed to be automatic and transparent to user. This is not often situation, but it seems that this solution was absent on the web. At lease I couldn't find it, while working in the issue.
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LVL 15

Administrative Comment

by:Eric AKA Netminder
Comment Utility
TarasShumylo,

Congratulations! Your article has been published.

ericpete
Page Editor
0
Downtime reduced, data recovered by utilizing an Experts Exchange Business Account

Challenge
The United States Marine Corps employs more than 200,000 active-duty Marines with operations in four continents, all requiring complex networking systems. With a relatively young and inexperienced workforce, the organization demands reliable resources to help Marines solve technology problems at installations and field sites worldwide.

Solution
Officers in the USMC use an Experts Exchange Business Account as a source of technology help that can be called upon as needed for troubleshooting assistance, research and as a historic information repository. Network problems can be corrected in a timely manner, thus minimizing outage periods.

“The information points us in the right direction and ensures the right corrective action is completed,” says Chief Warrant Officer Thomas Armentani.

CWO2 Armentani details a specific experience during his last deployment to Al Asad, Iraq.

“I used Experts Exchange to mitigate the outage period of our Microsoft Exchange environment,” explains Armentani. “Backups were corrupt and not validated, so there was a very high likelihood of data loss for end users. By using Experts Exchange to research the errors received on the Exchange server, we recovered all the information in a timely manner. Data was not lost in spite of the outage.”

Time saved, data recovered
By accessing reliable technology solutions with …
15
 
LVL 38

Expert Comment

by:younghv
Comment Utility
@wittyslogan,
I'm amazed that you're amazed.

There is nothing remotely sensitive about any information in the Article, including the actual name of the Officer.
0
 

Expert Comment

by:kingofnothing
Comment Utility
i love iraq this is were i live
but i didn't read the article because i have to sleep
0
Nslookup is a command line driven utility supplied as part of most Windows operating systems that can reveal information related to domain names and the Internet Protocol (IP) addresses associated with them.
In simple terms, it is a tool that can provide information by interrogating DNS servers either locally on your network or externally assuming the required DNS server responsible (or knowledgeable) about the requested domain is contactable from where you are operating - over the Internet for example. To access the nslookup utility, drop out to a cmd prompt window.
Nslookup provides options for a range of parameters and options that can be used to drill down to provide selected information on fully qualified domain names, the IP addresses associated with the domain names, identify the mail servers used on those domains plus much more. The list of parameters is quite long and can be seen by entering nslookup without using any parameters. At the ">" prompt, press the ? key and then press the enter or return key. The following will be displayed:
c:\
c:\nslookup    (Press enter)
Default Server:  sbs01.local.local          (My default DNS Server)
Address:  192.168.16.2                           (IP address of my default DNS Server)
>
> ?                    (Press enter)
Commands:   (identifiers are shown in uppercase, [] means optional)
NAME            - print info about the host/domain NAME using default server
NAME1 NAME2     - as above, but use NAME2 as server
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LVL 18

Expert Comment

by:Ravi Agrawal
Comment Utility
Brilliant, as usual.
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FIPS stands for the Federal Information Processing Standardisation and FIPS 140-2 is a collection of standards that are generically associated with hardware and software cryptography. In most cases, people can refer to this as the method of encrypting data. There are four levels under the 140-2 mandate and these - according to wikipedia - are:

FIPS 140-2 Level 1 is the entry point and roughly speaking means that components of a system must be "production-grade" and obvious kinds of insecurity must be absent.

FIPS 140-2 Level 2 adds requirements for physical tamper-evidence and role-based authentication.

FIPS 140-2 Level 3 adds requirements for physical tamper-resistance (making it difficult for attackers to gain access to sensitive information contained in the module) and identity-based authentication, and for a physical or logical separation between the interfaces by which "critical security parameters" enter and leave the module, and its other interfaces.

FIPS 140-2 Level 4 makes the physical security requirements more stringent, and requires robustness against environmental attacks.

Full details of the standards themselves can be found here:
http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips140-2/fips1402.pdf

Great blurb - but why should you care? Good question....

The reason is that these standards are actually in place and slowly but surely solution providers are being asked to confirm that …
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by:Kevin Cross
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Very nice article, Keith.
Voted yes above!
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by:younghv
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Keith - excellent balance of information, with good details and links.
Wish I'd known you when I was running SIPRNET stuff.
Big ol' yes!
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